observations about language

Belica 2

86 (a) emi žìto sàmo z žìtu čenìca kojò e za esèn'o
Well, wheat. Only grain (“zhito”); the wheat (“chenitsa”) that’s for autumn,

90 (MM) žìto i pšenìca ednò i sɤ̀što li e
Are “zhito” and “pshenitsa “ the same thing?

91 (a) ne è
[Ah] no, [they] aren’t.

92 (MM) koè e žìtoto koè e
Which is “zhito” and which is –

93 (a) žìtoto se kàzva rɤ̀š
“Zhito” is what [you] call rye.

95 (a) a čenìcatà e drùgo
And “chenitsa” is something else.

96 (MM) znàči na na rɤštà vìkate vìe žìto takà li
So that means you use the term “zhito” for rye, is that right?

97 (a) e žìtoto e za rɤštɤ̀ a čenìcata si e pčenìca baškɤ̀
Yes, “zhito” is for rye, and “chenitsa” is wheat. [It’s] different.

Drabišna 1

96 (a) s'ètne òšte trì sɤ̀nə spɤ̀t
and then they will sleep three more “sleeps”.

97 (GK) trì sɤ̀nə
Three “sleeps”.

Gela 3

13 (VZh) nè nè sàmo se interesùvame ot stàri ot stària rodòpski ə ezìk
No, no. We’re only interested in the old-time Rhodope language …

14 (GK) kàk se govòri tùka u gelà
How you speak here in Gela!

15 (VZh) kàkto se govòri v gelà
… how you speak in Gela.

16 (c) abe nìe da ti kàža bajɛ̀ gudìni živèeme f smòl'an
Ah, well to tell you [the truth], we’ve lived many years in Smolyan,

17 (c) ta go sme màlku ubɤ̀rkali
so we’ve messed up [our Gela speech] a bit.

34 (c) nèma ə čìstu rudòpsku li m guvòriš
Ah no, aren’t you going to speak pure Rhodope [speech] to them?

35 (GK) čìsto rodòpsko ni tr'àbva
We need pure Rhodope [speech].

36 (VZh) čìstu rodòpski dà
Pure Rhodope [speech], yes.

38 (d) [laughter] tò čistu i às ne znàm ve [laughter]
[laughter] “Pure” – even I don’t know that any more! [laughter]

39 (c) lì t kàzvəm nì go sme umɛ̀sɤlɤ nàšijas ezìk ezgà
Like I’m telling you, we’ve mixed up our language now.

Godeševo 4

11 (VZh) [Впрягаш или впрьогаш?]
[(When you say ‘you harness [it]’, do you say) fpryagash or fpryogash?]

12 (b) gu fpr'àgəš i gu fpr'ògəš sè si e ednò
Whether you say “fpryagash” or “fpryogash” – it doesn’t matter!

13 (a) fpr'àgəš
[It’s’] “fpryagash”

14 (b) n'àki təkà əmə n'àkuj gu pək kàzvə še gu fpr'àgə
Some [say] this [“fpryogash”] but another will say he’ll harness it, “fpryaga”.

15 (b) mə pučtì še gu fpr'àgəš kàzvət
But mostly it’s – you’ll harness it, “fpryagash” - [that’s what] people say.

Golica 3

18 (VZh) tvà kàk se vìka
What do you call this?

19 (c) hùrka
[A] distaff.

20 (VZh) tovà
[And] this?

21 (c) kədèl'ka
The wool on the distaff.

22 (VZh) kədèl'ka a tvà
[OK, that's the] wool on the distaff, and this?

23 (c) vrit'èno
[A] spindle.

Kralevo 3

10 (a) tvà kəvàk məl’è kəvàk tupòlə
this “Kavak” (poplar) district. “Kavak” means “topola” (poplar).

17 (a) mɨ sə čìn mɨ sə čìnvə tvà sə krɤ̀k
It seems to me that this is – “kɤrk” –

18 (a) četirìjse l’ bèše be lènče
[that] means “forty”, doesn’t it, Lenche?

19 (VZh) kɤ̀rk e četìrese takà li
[Yes,] “kŭrk” is “forty.” Right?

20 (a) četɨ̀rese
Forty.

21 (c) da takà e
Yes, that’s right.

Mogilica 5

1 (b) əmi vìš segà əku še mu rèkə čòrbəžì l'udèsu sə glàdni
So look now. If I'll say to [the boss], "Hey boss, _these here_ people are hungry" ...

2 (GK) l'udèsu sə glàdni
_These here_ people are hungry.

3 (b) znàči hòrətə sə glàdni
... that means that the people are hungry.

5 (b) nèmə li də dədèš də sə nəjədɔ̀t ili də sə nəjədèm
"Aren't you going to give them [enough] to eat their fill?" – to eat our fill?

7 (b) li əku às učàstvəm f t'àh znàči də sə nəjədèm
Or if I'm a participant in that group, I'd say “… [for us] to eat our fill.”

8 (GK) dà ə nè ako tr'àbva də də kàže glàdnite kədè gi pugrìbate
Yes. Well, no. If someone needs to say “Where do you bury the hungry ones?”

9 (GK) kàk še gu kàže i tòj e meždu tìja glàdnite
how will he say it, if he [himself] is among these, the hungry ones?

10 (b) glàn glàdnise kədè še gi pugrebèm
Hung – [he'd say] “Where are we going to bury _these here_ hungry ones?”

11 (GK) [laughter] znàči glàdnise i zaštò go upotreb'àva sɤ̀
[laughter] So then, “_these here_ hungry ones.” But why does he use _these here_?

12 (GK) zaštò kàzva glàdnise i ne kàzva glàdnite
Why does he say “_these here_ hungry ones” and not [just] “_the_ hungry ones”?

13 (b) glàdnise zəštòtu f mum'èntə sə glàdni
“_These here_ hungry ones” because at the moment [of speech] they are HUNGRY!

14 (b) əku sə umrɛ̀li tugàvə glàdnite kədè še gi pugrebète
If they've died, then where are you going to bury _the_ hungry ones?

16 (b) i tɤ̀j vəf mumèntə se izvɤ̀ršvə vrème segàšno vrème
So there. It's the time that's happening now. [It's] the present tense.

18 (b) a glàdnite e vəf mìnəlu vrème
and “_the_ hungry ones” is in the past tense.

22 (b) glàdnise segàšno glàdnite e f mìnalo
“_These here_ hungry ones”: the present. [But] “_the_ hungry ones” is in the past.

23 (GK) a glàdnine
And “_those there_ hungry ones”?

24 (b) glàdnine znàči bɤ̀dešte
“_Those there_ hungry ones” means the future.

25 (c) tò gi nèmə
They are not here.

26 (b) n'àmə gi
They're not here.

27 (c) tò gi nèmə ukulu nàs glànine
They're not here around us, “_those there_ hungry ones”,

28 (c) i zatvà [unintelligible] glàdninè
and that's why [unintelligible] “_those there_ hungry ones”.

30 (c) znàči tè ne sɤ̀ səs nàs
That means they aren't [here] with us.

32 (b) tè sə utsɤ̀tstvət
They're absent.

33 (GK) a ne mòže li də se ub'asnì təkà
But can't you explain it by [saying]

34 (GK) če tòo kòjtu govòri e čàst ut ut tijə hòra
that the one who is speaking is one of, of these people,

35 (GK) i zatovà sə upotreb'àvə sɤ̀
and for that reason he uses -s- [“these here”]?

36 (b) če mòže be
Sure, you can [if you want].

37 (GK) às mìsl'ə če zatovà se upotreb'àvə glàdnisè a nè glàdnitè
I thought that's why it's “_these here_ hungry ones”, not [just] “_the_ hungry ones.”

38 (b) glàdnite znàči tì ne učàstvəš
[Saying just] “_the_ hungry ones” means you're not part of them.

40 (b) a gla glàdni
And [the word] hungry…

41 (GK) se
[with] _these here_ [added]

42 (b) sè pàk mòže də ne učàstvəš
[with] _these here_ [added], it's still possible that you're not part of them.

43 (GK) kàk
In what way?

44 (c) sè štòm kàzvəš glàdnisè
[by adding] _these here_, because you're saying “_these here_ hungry ones”.

45 (GK) znàči sa do nègo nèjde
It means they are near him somehow.

46 (b) glàdni sà ne sè glàdni sà
It's ARE (they are hungry), not _these here_. [Saying] “They are hungry”

47 (b) znàči tì ne učàstvəš əku kàžeš glàdni smè
means you're not part of the group. If you say “We are hungry”

49 (b) znàči učàstvəš
then you are part of the group.

50 (GK) əhə če ednà bàba vìka ə sedìm nə nə pɤ̀t'ə ili
Aha. Well, [say] an old woman says – we're sitting by the road or

51 (GK) tàm f kɤ̀štətə i às ìdva drùga bàba
there in the house and I – and another old woman comes.

52 (GK) às stàvam ut stòla i t'à mi vìka a sèdi si
I get up [to give her my] chair and she says, “No, [go on and] sit there.

53 (GK) sèdi màlko màlko l'ude uvažàvat stàrise hòra
Sit a bit. Very few people respect _these here_ old ones.”

54 (GK) štò go kàzva stàrise hòra a ne stàrite ili stàrine
Why does she say “_these here_ old people” and not “_the_ old” or “_those there_ old”?

55 (b) stàrise znàči i t'à vlìzə f tuvà čislò stàrise
“_These here_ old” means that she belongs to the category “_these here_ old”.

57 (b) əku kàže stàrine l'ùd'e znàči t'à ne vlìzə
If she says “_those there_ old people” that means she doesn't belong

58 (b) f tovà čislò znàči t'à se sm'àtə zə pò mlàda
to that category. It means she thinks of herself as younger.

59 (GK) ako kàže stàrite
[And] if she says “_the_ old [ones]?”

60 (b) màlku nə uvažàvət stàritè l'ùd'e
[As in] “_the_ old people aren't very respected these days”?

62 (b) znàči pàk i t'à učàstvə
[Now] it means that she's part of the group again.

64 (b) i stàrise i stàrit'e i t'à vlìzə vəf k'ùpə
Either “_those there_ old [ones]” or “_the_ old [ones]” – she's part of the group.

66 (b) ì dvètɛ
Both [ways of saying it are OK].

68 (b) nàči i t'ɛ̀ e
Which means that she too is –

69 (GK) i t'ɛ̀
So she too –

70 (b) tò zavìsi tò zavìsi səs mom'ènta kàk se sl'èdvat muhəbètə
It depends – it depends how the moment in the conversation is going,

71 (b) səmìjə muhabèt kàk [unintelligible] zəštòto mòže da ispòlzva
how the actual conversation [is going], because she can use

72 (b) f edìnijə slučaj stàrɨtè v drùgijə slùčaj stàrisè
“_the_ old [ones]” in one instance, and “_these here_ old [ones]” in another.

73 (GK) ako n'àkoj
[So] if someone

75 (GK) e spomenàl stàrise togàva
has [already] mentioned “_these here_ old [ones]”, then

76 (GK) t'à m bì li moglà da kàže stàrite
could she say [in the same conversation] “_the_ old [ones]”?

77 (c) mòže
[Yes,] she can.

78 (b) ne mòže
[No,] she can't.

79 (c) əku pomenè predì t'àh n'ɛ̀koj as i t'à kàzvə stàrite
If someone [has] mentioned [them] earlier, and she says “_the_ old [ones]”

80 (GK) i togàs t'à mòže da kàže
So then in that [case], she can say it [“the old ones”].

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Recommended Model for Citations

Bulgarian Dialectology as Living Tradition [2016] (http://www.bulgariandialectology.org, visited on 1 March 2016)
Babjak 1: 13-15. In: Bulgarian Dialectology as Living Tradition [2016] (http://www.bulgariandialectology.org, visited on 1 March 2016)

by Dr. Radut