NOTE: the text is about three different ways to say “the” in this dialect. One means “the [one(s)] nearby or immediately relevant” and is translated as _these here_”. Another means “the [one(s)] further off or less immediately relevant,” and is translated as “_those there_”. The remaining one, with neutral meaning, is translated simply as “_the_”. Only instances of “the” which are spoken with intent to discuss the contrast between it and the other two forms are marked below as “_the_”.
Additionally there are two different ways to say “this” in the dialect: one emphasizes the closeness (or immediate relevance) and is translated “this here”, as opposed to the other, which is simply translated “this”.
Examples (from the text):
Definite article (basic meaning “the”) gladnise _these here_ hungry ones gladnite _the_ hungry ones gladnine _those there_ hungry ones
Demonstrative (basic meaning “this”) soa čovek this here man toa čovek this man
Note: Because of the potential for noise interference and the possibility of slurred speech, such locales are not usually chosen for field work. However the conversation that developed was sufficiently interesting, and full of relevant dialectal features, that it has been included here.
1 (b) [0:01] So look now. If I'll say to [the boss], "Hey boss, _these here_ people are hungry" ...
|disc||see sg imv P||now adv||if conj||fut||dat m 3sg clt||say 1sg pres P||landowner sg m||people pl def prox||3pl pres cop clt||hungry pl adj|
2 (GK) _These here_ people are hungry.
|people pl def prox||3pl pres cop clt||hungry pl adj|
3 (b) [0:06] ... that means that the people are hungry.
|mean 3sg pres I||people pl def med||3pl pres cop clt||hungry pl adj|
4 (GK) Aha.
5 (b) [0:08] "Aren't you going to give them [enough] to eat their fill?" – to eat our fill?
|fut neg||interr clt||comp||give 2sg pres P||comp||acc refl clt||eat.up 3pl pres P||or||comp||acc refl clt||eat.up 1pl pres P|
6 (GK) Yeah
7 (b) [0:12] Or if I'm a participant in that group, I'd say “… [for us] to eat our fill.”
|or||if conj||nom 1sg||participate 1sg pres I||in||acc 3pl||mean 3sg pres I||comp||acc refl clt||eat.up 1pl pres P|
8 (GK) Yes. Well, no. If someone needs to say “Where do you bury the hungry ones?”
|yes||disc||no||if conj||must pres imprs||comp||comp||say 3sg pres P||hungry pl def med adj||where interr||acc 3pl clt||bury 2pl pres I|
9 (GK) how will he say it, if he [himself] is among these, the hungry ones?
|how interr||acc refl clt||acc n 3sg clt||say 3sg pres P||and||nom m 3sg||3sg pres cop clt||among||this pl adj||hungry pl def med adj|
10 (b) [0:24] Hung – [he'd say] “Where are we going to bury _these here_ hungry ones?”
||hungry pl prox adj||where interr||fut||acc 3pl clt||bury 1pl pres P|
11 (GK) [laughter] So then, “_these here_ hungry ones.” But why does he use _these here_?
|mean 3sg pres I||hungry pl prox adj||and||why interr||acc n 3sg clt||use 3sg pres I||
12 (GK) Why does he say “_these here_ hungry ones” and not [just] “_the_ hungry ones”?
|why interr||say 3sg pres I||hungry pl def prox adj||and||neg||say 3sg pres I||hungry pl def med adj|
13 (b) [0:33] “_These here_ hungry ones” because at the moment [of speech] they are HUNGRY!
|hungry pl def prox adj||because conj||in||moment sg m def||3pl pres cop clt||hungry pl adj|
14 (b) [0:37] If they've died, then where are you going to bury _the_ hungry ones?
|if conj||3pl pres aux clt||die pl L.part P||then med adv||hungry pl def med adj||where interr||fut||acc 3pl clt||bury 2pl pres P|
15 (GK) Aha.
16 (b) [0:42] So there. It's the time that's happening now. [It's] the present tense.
|and||thus med adv||in||moment sg m def||acc refl clt||carry.out 3sg pres I||time sg n||present sg n adj||time sg n|
17 (GK) Aha.
18 (b) [0:45] and “_the_ hungry ones” is in the past tense.
|and||hungry pl def med adj||3sg pres cop clt||in||past sg n adj||time sg n|
19 (GK) Uh huh,
20 (b) [0:47] You see?
|understand 2sg pres I||interr clt|
21 (GK) Uh huh.
22 (b) [0:48] “_These here_ hungry ones”: the present. [But] “_the_ hungry ones” is in the past.
|hungry pl def prox adj||present sg n adj||hungry pl def med adj||3sg pres cop clt||in||past sg n adj|
23 (GK) And “_those there_ hungry ones”?
|and||hungry pl def dist adj|
24 (b) [0:54] “_Those there_ hungry ones” means the future.
|hungry pl def dist adj||mean 3sg pres I||future sg n|
25 (c) [0:55] They are not here.
|disc||acc 3pl clt||pres neg exist|
26 (b) [0:56] They're not here.
|pres neg exist||acc 3pl clt|
27 (c) [0:57] They're not here around us, “_those there_ hungry ones”,
|disc||acc 3pl clt||pres neg exist||around||acc 1pl||hungry pl def dist adj|
28 (c) [0:59] and that's why [unintelligible] “_those there_ hungry ones”.
|and||for.that adv||hungry pl def dist adj|
29 (GK) Aha.
30 (c) [1:00] That means they aren't [here] with us.
|mean 3sg pres I||nom 3pl||neg||3pl pres cop clt||with||acc 1pl|
31 (GK) Aha, aha. So they, this –
|disc||disc||disc||ost||this sg n adj||3sg pres cop clt|
32 (b) [1:03] They're absent.
|nom 3pl||acc refl clt||be.absent 3pl pres I|
33 (GK) But can't you explain it by [saying]
|but||neg||can pres imprs||interr clt||comp||acc refl clt||explain 3sg pres P||thus adv|
34 (GK) that the one who is speaking is one of, of these people,
|that conj||nom m 3sg||who sg m rel||speak 3sg pres I||3sg pres cop clt||part sg f||of||of||this pl adj||people pl|
35 (GK) and for that reason he uses -s- [“these here”]?
|and||therefore adv||acc refl clt||use 3sg pres I||
36 (b) [1:10] Sure, you can [if you want].
|disc||can pres imprs||adrs|
37 (GK) I thought that's why it's “_these here_ hungry ones”, not [just] “_the_ hungry ones.”
|nom 1sg||think 1sg pres I||that conj||therefore adv||acc refl clt||use 3sg pres I||hungry pl def prox adj||and||not||hungry pl def med adj|
38 (b) [1:19] [Saying just] “_the_ hungry ones” means you're not part of them.
|hungry pl def med adj||mean 3sg pres I||nom 2sg||neg||participate 2sg pres I|
39 (GK) Yes.
40 (b) [1:21] And [the word] hungry…
||hungry pl adj|
41 (GK) [with] _these here_ [added]
42 (b) [1:23] [with] _these here_ [added], it's still possible that you're not part of them.
||again adv||can pres imprs||comp||neg||participate 2sg pres I|
43 (GK) In what way?
44 (c) [1:26] [by adding] _these here_, because you're saying “_these here_ hungry ones”.
||when conj||say 2sg pres I||hungry pl def prox adj|
45 (GK) It means they are near him somehow.
|mean 3sg pres I||3pl pres cop clt||by||acc m 3sg||somewhere adv|
46 (b) [1:29] It's ARE (they are hungry), not _these here_. [Saying] “They are hungry”
|hungry pl adj||3pl pres cop clt||neg||
||hungry pl adj||3pl pres cop clt|
47 (b) [1:31] means you're not part of the group. If you say “We are hungry”
|mean 3sg pres I||nom 2sg||neg||participate 2sg pres I||if conj||say 2sg pres P||hungry pl adj||1pl pres cop clt|
48 (GK) Aha.
49 (b) [1:34] then you are part of the group.
|mean 3sg pres I||participate 2sg pres I|
50 (GK) Aha. Well, [say] an old woman says – we're sitting by the road or
|disc||disc||one f sg adj||grandmother f sg||call 3sg pres I||sit 1pl pres I||to||to||road sg m def||or|
51 (GK) there in the house and I – and another old woman comes.
|there adv||in||house sg f def||and||nom 1sg||come 3sg pres I||other sg f adj||grandmother f sg|
52 (GK) I get up [to give her my] chair and she says, “No, [go on and] sit there.
|nom 1sg||arise 1sg pres I||from||chair sg m def||and||nom f 3sg||dat 1sg clt||call 3sg pres I||disc||sit sg imv I||dat refl clt|
53 (GK) Sit a bit. Very few people respect _these here_ old ones.”
|sit sg imv I||little adv||little adv||people pl||respect 3pl pres I||old pl def prox adj||people pl|
54 (GK) Why does she say “_these here_ old people” and not “_the_ old” or “_those there_ old”?
|why interr||acc n 3sg clt||say 3sg pres I||old pl def prox adj||people pl||but||neg||old pl def med adj||or||old pl def dist adj|
55 (b) [1:55] “_These here_ old” means that she belongs to the category “_these here_ old”.
|old pl def prox adj||mean 3sg pres I||and||nom f 3sg||enter 3sg pres I||in||this sg n med adj||number sg n||old pl def prox adj|
56 (GK) Aha.
57 (b) [1:59] If she says “_those there_ old people” that means she doesn't belong
|if conj||say 3sg pres P||old pl def dist adj||people pl||mean 3sg pres I||nom f 3sg||neg||enter 3sg pres I|
58 (b) [2:01] to that category. It means she thinks of herself as younger.
|in||this sg n med adj||number sg n||mean 3sg pres I||nom f 3sg||acc refl clt||reckon 3sg pres I||for||more||young f sg adj|
59 (GK) [And] if she says “_the_ old [ones]?”
|if conj||say 3sg pres P||old pl def med adj|
60 (b) [2:05] [As in] “_the_ old people aren't very respected these days”?
|little adv||neg||respect 3pl pres I||old pl def med adj||people pl|
61 (GK) Yes.
62 (b) [2:08] [Now] it means that she's part of the group again.
|mean 3sg pres I||again adv||and||nom f 3sg||participate 3sg pres I|
63 (GK) Uh huh.
64 (b) [2:11] Either “_those there_ old [ones]” or “_the_ old [ones]” – she's part of the group.
|and||old pl def prox adj||and||old pl def med adj||and||nom f 3sg||enter 3sg pres I||in||crowd sg m def|
65 (GK) [This is] very important.
|very adv||important sg n adj|
66 (b) [2:16] Both [ways of saying it are OK].
|and||two n def|
67 (GK) Yes?
68 (b) [2:18] Which means that she too is –
|mean 3sg pres I||and||nom f 3sg||3sg pres cop clt|
69 (GK) So she too –
|and||nom f 3sg|
70 (b) [2:19] It depends – it depends how the moment in the conversation is going,
|nom sg n||depend 3sg pres I||nom sg n||depend 3sg pres I||with||moment sg m def||how interr||acc refl clt||follow 3pl pres I||conversation sg m def|
71 (b) [2:23] how the actual conversation [is going], because she can use
|very sg m def adj||conversation sg m||how interr||because||can 3sg pres I||comp||use 3sg pres I|
72 (b) [2:27] “_the_ old [ones]” in one instance, and “_these here_ old [ones]” in another.
|in||sg m def med adj||instance sg m||old pl def med adj||in||other m def adj||instance sg m||old pl def prox adj|
73 (GK) [So] if someone
|if conj||someone sg m|
74 (b) [unintelligible]
75 (GK) has [already] mentioned “_these here_ old [ones]”, then
|3sg pres aux clt||mention sg m L.part P||old pl def prox adj||then adv|
76 (GK) could she say [in the same conversation] “_the_ old [ones]”?
|nom f 3sg||hes||3sg cond||interr clt||can sg f L.part I||comp||say 3sg pres P||old pl def med adj|
77 (c) [2:34] [Yes,] she can.
|can 3sg pres I|
78 (b) [2:35] [No,] she can't.
|neg||can 3sg pres I|
79 (c) [2:36] If someone [has] mentioned [them] earlier, and she says “_the_ old [ones]”
|if conj||mention 3sg pres P||before||acc 3pl||someone sg m||
||and||nom f 3sg||say 3sg pres I||old pl def med adj|
80 (GK) So then in that [case], she can say it [“the old ones”].
|and||then adv||nom f 3sg||can 3sg pres I||comp||say 3sg pres P|
81 (c) [2:41] Yes, then she [can] say “_the_ old ones” because they're past – “_the_ old ones”.
||then med adv||say 3sg pres I||old pl def med adj||because conj||nom 3pl||3pl pres aux clt||pass pl L.part P||old pl def med adj|
82 (b) [2:43] Ah, right. [The ones] that are past [= already mentioned in the conversation]. Yes.
|disc||rel med||3pl pres aux clt||pass pl L.part P||disc|
83 (GK) So [then] if you say “_this here_ old man talks really coarsely,”
|disc||comp||say 2sg pres P||old.man sg m def prox||much adv||speak 3sg pres I||ugly adv|
84 (GK) where – where does he need to be? Does he need to be [right] here?
|must pres imprs||comp||3sg pres cop clt||where interr||must pres imprs||comp||3sg pres cop clt||here adv||interr clt|
85 (b) [2:52] He needs to be here. “_This here_ old man talks really coarsely.”
|must pres imprs||comp||3sg pres cop clt||here adv||old.man sg m def prox||much adv||speak 3sg pres I||ugly adv|
86 (GK) Yes.
87 (b) [2:55] If he's not here, [then] “_that there_ old man”.
|if conj||3sg pres cop clt||acc m 3sg clt||pres neg exist||here adv||old.man sg m def dist|
88 (GK) Yes.
89 (b) [2:57] For instance, [about] old Zhelyu: “_That there_ old man Zheluvsky talks really coarsely”
|for.example adv||old sg m adj||Zhelyo sg m name||old.man sg m def dist||Zhelyovski sg m name||much adv||speak 3sg pres I||ugly adv||interr|
90 (GK) Uh huh.
91 (b) [3:02] [But] if he's here [you'd say], “This here old man talks really coarsely.”
|if conj||3sg pres cop clt||here adv||[...]||ost||this sg m prox adj||old.man sg m||much adv||speak 3sg pres I||ugly adv|
92 (b) [3:04] That means [you're talking about] this here man …
|ost||this sg m prox adj||old.man sg m||mean 3sg pres I|
93 (GK) O.K. then.
94 (b) [3:06] … it refers to him. [Whoever's speaking] is pointing to him.
|for||acc m 3sg||acc refl clt||refer 3sg pres I||indicate 3sg pres I||acc m 3sg clt|
95 (GK) When I was at a [certain] old woman's house she said [the following] to me:
|nom 1sg||when conj||1sg impf cop||by||one f sg adj||grandmother sg m||nom f 3sg||dat 1sg clt||call 3sg pres I||thus adv|
96 (GK) “_This here_ old man died recently; we just did the ritual forty-day observance.”
|old.man sg m def prox||die 3sg aor P||recently adv||make 1pl aor I||dat m 3sg clt||forty||day ct m||recently adv|
97 (b) [3:15] Yeah.
98 (GK) The old man isn't around any more. So why did she say “_this here_ old man”
|old.man sg m def||acc m 3sg clt||pres neg exist||nom f 3sg||why interr||say 3sg pres I||old.man sg m def prox|
99 (GK) and not “_that there_ old man”?
|and||neg||[...]||old.man sg m def dist|
100 (c) [3:20] Because he had been hers.
|because||3sg pres aux clt||her sg n adj||be sg n L.part|
101 (GK) What?
102 (b) [3:23] He had been her spouse.
|her sg m adj||spouse sg m||3sg pres aux clt||be sg m L.part|
103 (c) [3:24] He'd been hers.
|her sg m adj||3sg pres aux clt||be sg m L.part|
104 (GK) Aha!
105 (c) [3:26] The old man had been her husband. So that old man, let's say –
|old.man sg m def||her sg m adj||man sg m||3sg pres aux clt||be sg m L.part||that sg m dist adj||old sg m def adj||comp||say 1pl pres P|
106 (c) [3:29] if he had not been her husband, he [would have] been her grandfather
|if conj||3sg pres cop clt||neg||be sg m L.part||man sg m||be sg m L.part||dat f 3sg clt||3sg pres aux clt||grandfather sg m|
107 (c) [3:31] Understand? You see, they'd still say “_the- old man”.
|understand 2sg pres I||interr clt||but||again adv||say 3sg pres I||old.man sg m def|
108 (GK) “_That there_ old man”.
|old.man sg m def dist|
109 (c) [3:33] “_The_ old man”.
|old.man sg m def|
110 (GK) [I ask] because I was at the same old woman's and she said [at] one point,
|because||1sg impf cop||and||by||same sg f def adj||grandmother f sg||dat 1sg clt||call 3sg pres I||mean 3sg pres I||one sg m adj||time m|
111 (GK) “[My] _this here_ son is ill”, and he's in _this here_ house,
|son sg m def prox||ill sg m adj||nom sg n||lie 3sg pres I||in||house sg f def prox|
112 (b) [3:42] _this here_ house (corrects pronunciation to that of local dialect)
|house sg f def prox|
113 (GK) _this here_ house. But her son wasn't there with us, he was in his room.
|house sg f def prox||but||son sg m def||acc m 3sg clt||pres neg exist||by||acc 1pl||nom m 3sg||3sg pres cop clt||in||room sg f def|
114 (GK) [Still] she said “[My] _this here_ son is ill.” But after that
|disc||nom f 3sg||say 3sg pres I||son sg m def prox||ill sg m adj||but||after||this sg n adj|
115 (GK) she said “[my] _that there_ daughter-in-law
|call 3sg pres I||daughter.in.law sg f def dist|
116 (b) [3:50] _this here_ son (corrects pronunciation again)
|son sg m def prox|
117 (GK) Huh?
118 (b) [3:51] _this here_ son
|son sg m def prox|
119 (GK) _this here_ son
|son sg m def prox|
120 (b) [3:52] [My] _this here_ son is ill
|son sg m def prox||3sg pres cop clt||ill sg m adj|
121 (GK) “[My] _this here_ son is ill, he is in _this here_ house.”
|son sg m def prox||3sg pres cop clt||ill sg m adj||nom sg n||lie 3sg pres I||in||house sg f def prox|
122 (b) [3:54] “… in _this here_ house”; yes [that's right].
|in||house sg f def prox||yes|
123 (GK) But right after that she said “[My] _that there_ daughter in law” – she's working
|and||and||after||this sg n adj||call 3sg pres I||daughter.in.law sg f def dist||hes||nom f 3sg||work 3sg pres I|
124 (GK) somewhere around there; the daughter-in-law wasn't actually there [with us].
|there adv||somewhere adv||dat refl clt||daughter.in.law sg f def||acc f 3sg clt||pres neg exist||really adv|
125 (GK) So I don't know whether it would – but I got the impression that
|neg||know 1sg pres I||interr||fut||and||disc||dat 1sg clt||make 3sg pres P||impresssion sg n||that conj|
126 (GK) she said “_this here_ son” but “_that there_ daughter-in law”
|say 3sg aor P||son sg m def prox||but||but||daughter.in.law sg f def dist|
127 (GK) or “_that there_ daughter-in law”; I don't know how [it] was [pronounced].
|or||daughter.in.law sg f dist||neg||know 1sg pres I||how interr||3sg impf cop|
128 (b) [4:07] Look here. It's because he's in _that there_ village or somewhere around
|see sg imv P||now adv||disc||because adv||3sg pres cop clt||in||village sg n def dist||or||3sg pres cop clt||around|
129 (b) [4:11] _that there_ house, and that's why she uses [the form] “[my]_this here_ son”.
|house sg f def dist||and||nom f 3sg||therefore adv||use 3sg pres I||son sg m def prox|
130 (GK) And not because he's hers.
|and||not||because conj||3sg pres cop clt||her sg m adj|
131 (b) [4:13] If, uh, if, let's say she's from Koshnitsa
|if conj||3sg pres cop clt||if conj||comp||say 1pl pres P||nom f 3sg||3sg pres cop clt||from||Koshnitsa sg f place|
132 (b) [4:17] and her son is sick there in Koshnitsa, she'll say
|son sg m def||dat f 3sg clt||lie 3sg pres I||in||Koshnitsa sg f place||ill sg m adj||fut||say 3sg pres P|
133 (b) [4:21] “[My] _that there_ son is sick in _that there_ house.”
|son sg m def dist||lie 3sg pres I||in||house sg f def dist||ill sg m adj|
134 (GK) Aha.
135 (b) [4:23] That is, she's from another village.
|mean 3sg pres I||nom f 3sg||3sg pres cop clt||from||other sg n adj||village sg n|
136 (GK) Yes.
137 (b) [4:24] If she's here at the moment, in _that there_ district, or near _the_ house,
|if conj||3sg pres cop clt||here adv||in||moment sg m def||in||district sg f def dist||or||by||house sg f def med|
138 (b) [4:28] she'll say to you “[My] _that there_ son is inside _that there_ house.”
|nom f 3sg||fut||dat 2sg clt||say 3sg pres P||son sg m def prox||lie 3sg pres I||inside adv||in||house sg f def dist|
139 (GK) “Inside _that there_ house, sick.” No, [what] I wondered [was]
|inside adv||in||house sg f def dist||ill sg m adj||no||nom 1sg||dat refl clt||think 1sg aor P|
140 (GK) whether they're divided into kinship by blood or kinship by marriage.
|interr||acc 3pl clt||divide 3sg pres I||in||blood sg n adj||kinship sg n||or||in||non.blood sg n adj||kinship sg n|
141 (GK) That is, her son is blood kin [to her], he belongs to her …
|mean 3sg pres I||son sg m def||dat f 3sg clt||3sg pres cop clt||blood sg n adj||kinship sg n||nom sg n||dat refl clt||3sg pres cop clt||her sg n adj|
142 (b) [4:38] He belongs to her. He's hers.
|nom sg n||dat refl clt||3sg pres cop clt||her sg n adj||her sg n adj||3sg pres cop clt|
143 (GK) … and that's why she said “ _this here_ son”.
|thus adv||say 3sg pres I||son sg m def prox|
144 (GK) But the daughter-in-law is not blood kin …
|and||but||daughter.in.law sg f def||neg||3sg pres cop clt||blood sg n adj||kinship sg n|
145 (c) [4:42] She's not.
|neg||3sg pres cop clt|
146 (GK) … and that's why she then said “[my] _that there_ daughter-in-law”, or
|and||thus adv||call 3sg pres I||there adv||daughter.in.law sg f def dist||or|
147 (GK) “ _that there_ daughter-in-law”, or “ _that there_ daughter-in-law”, or whatever.
|daughter.in.law sg f def dist||or||daughter.in.law sg f def dist||what sg n interr|
148 (b) [4:47] “_That there_ daughter-in-law is working somewhere or another.”
|daughter.in.law sg f def dist||work 3sg pres I||somewhere adv||dat refl clt|
149 (GK) Yes.
150 (b) [4:49] Or maybe “_That there_ daughter-in-law went off somewhere or another.”
|or||but||daughter.in.law sg f dist||go sg f L.part P||somewhere adv||dat refl clt|
151 (GK) But for her son, she can say “[My] _this here_ son went off …”
|and||but||for||son sg m def||dat refl clt||can pres imprs||say 3sg pres P||son sg m def prox||go 3sg aor P|
152 (b) [4:53] “ … went off to gather wood.”
|go 3sg aor P||comp||gather 3sg pres I||wood pl n|
153 (GK) Yes.
154 (c) [4:57] He's hers.
|nom sg n||3sg pres cop clt||her sg n adj|
155 (GK) He's hers.
|nom sg n||3sg pres cop clt||her sg n adj|
156 (c) [4:58] He's hers.
|nom sg n||3sg pres cop clt||her sg n adj|
157 (GK) And that's why [she'd say it] like that.
|thus adv||thus adv|
158 (b) [4:59] I tell you, _that there_ daughter-in-law doesn't manage the housework!
|much adv||dat 1sg clt||adrs||neg||do.housework 3sg pres I||daughter.in.law sg n def prox|
159 (c) [laughter]
160 (b) [laughter]
161 (GK) “I tell you, … ?”
|much adv||dat 1sg clt||adrs||neg|
162 (b) [5:03] _That there_ daughter-in-law doesn't manage the housework!
|neg||do.housework 3sg pres I||daughter.in.law sg n def prox|
163 (GK) You don't complete ?
|neg||complete 2sg pres I|
164 (b) [5:06] SHE doesn't do the housework –
|neg||do.housework 3sg pres I|
165 (GK) Yes?
166 (b) [5:07] “_that there_ daughter-in-law.”
|daughter.in.law sg n def prox|
167 (b) [5:08] It means that [the mother-in-law] isn't happy with the daughter-in-law.
|mean 3sg pres I||that.is adv||3sg pres cop clt||neg||satisfied sg f adj||from||daughter.in.law sg n def med|