Mogilica 5

Commentary on the text: 

NOTE: the text is about three different ways to say “the” in this dialect. One means “the [one(s)] nearby or immediately relevant” and is translated as _these here_”. Another means “the [one(s)] further off or less immediately relevant,” and is translated as “_those there_”. The remaining one, with neutral meaning, is translated simply as “_the_”. Only instances of “the” which are spoken with intent to discuss the contrast between it and the other two forms are marked below as “_the_”.

Additionally there are two different ways to say “this” in the dialect: one emphasizes the closeness (or immediate relevance) and is translated “this here”, as opposed to the other, which is simply translated “this”.

Examples (from the text):

Definite article (basic meaning “the”) gladnise _these here_ hungry ones gladnite _the_ hungry ones gladnine _those there_ hungry ones

Demonstrative (basic meaning “this”) soa čovek this here man toa čovek this man

Note: Because of the potential for noise interference and the possibility of slurred speech, such locales are not usually chosen for field work. However the conversation that developed was sufficiently interesting, and full of relevant dialectal features, that it has been included here.

1 (b) [0:01]      So look now. If I'll say to [the boss], "Hey boss, _these here_ people are hungry" ...

disc
see sg imv P now adv if conj
fut
dat m 3sg clt
say 1sg pres P landowner sg m people pl def prox
3pl pres cop clt
hungry pl adj

2 (GK)       _These here_ people are hungry.

people pl def prox
3pl pres cop clt
hungry pl adj

3 (b) [0:06]      ... that means that the people are hungry.

mean 3sg pres I people pl def med
3pl pres cop clt
hungry pl adj

4 (GK)       Aha.

bkch

5 (b) [0:08]      "Aren't you going to give them [enough] to eat their fill?" – to eat our fill?

fut neg
interr clt
comp
give 2sg pres P
comp
acc refl clt
eat.up 3pl pres P
or
comp
acc refl clt
eat.up 1pl pres P

6 (GK)       Yeah

bkch

7 (b) [0:12]      Or if I'm a participant in that group, I'd say “… [for us] to eat our fill.”

or
if conj nom 1sg participate 1sg pres I
in
acc 3pl mean 3sg pres I
comp
acc refl clt
eat.up 1pl pres P

8 (GK)       Yes. Well, no. If someone needs to say “Where do you bury the hungry ones?”

yes
disc
no
if conj
must pres imprs
comp
comp
say 3sg pres P hungry pl def med adj where interr
acc 3pl clt
bury 2pl pres I

9 (GK)       how will he say it, if he [himself] is among these, the hungry ones?

how interr
acc refl clt
acc n 3sg clt
say 3sg pres P
and
nom m 3sg
3sg pres cop clt
among this pl adj hungry pl def med adj

10 (b) [0:24]      Hung – [he'd say] “Where are we going to bury _these here_ hungry ones?”

[...]
hungry pl prox adj where interr
fut
acc 3pl clt
bury 1pl pres P

11 (GK)       [laughter] So then, “_these here_ hungry ones.” But why does he use _these here_?

mean 3sg pres I hungry pl prox adj
and
why interr
acc n 3sg clt
use 3sg pres I pl def prox

12 (GK)       Why does he say “_these here_ hungry ones” and not [just] “_the_ hungry ones”?

why interr say 3sg pres I hungry pl def prox adj
and
neg
say 3sg pres I hungry pl def med adj

13 (b) [0:33]      “_These here_ hungry ones” because at the moment [of speech] they are HUNGRY!

hungry pl def prox adj because conj
in
moment sg m def
3pl pres cop clt
hungry pl adj

14 (b) [0:37]      If they've died, then where are you going to bury _the_ hungry ones?

if conj
3pl pres aux clt
die pl L.part P then med adv hungry pl def med adj where interr
fut
acc 3pl clt
bury 2pl pres P

15 (GK)       Aha.

disc

16 (b) [0:42]      So there. It's the time that's happening now. [It's] the present tense.

and
thus med adv in
moment sg m def
acc refl clt
carry.out 3sg pres I time sg n present sg n adj time sg n

17 (GK)       Aha.

bkch

18 (b) [0:45]      and “_the_ hungry ones” is in the past tense.

and
hungry pl def med adj
3sg pres cop clt
in
past sg n adj time sg n

19 (GK)       Uh huh,

bkch

20 (b) [0:47]      You see?

understand 2sg pres I
interr clt

21 (GK)       Uh huh.

bkch

22 (b) [0:48]      “_These here_ hungry ones”: the present. [But] “_the_ hungry ones” is in the past.

hungry pl def prox adj present sg n adj hungry pl def med adj
3sg pres cop clt
in
past sg n adj

23 (GK)       And “_those there_ hungry ones”?

and
hungry pl def dist adj

24 (b) [0:54]      “_Those there_ hungry ones” means the future.

hungry pl def dist adj mean 3sg pres I future sg n

25 (c) [0:55]      They are not here.

disc
acc 3pl clt
pres neg exist

26 (b) [0:56]      They're not here.

pres neg exist
acc 3pl clt

27 (c) [0:57]      They're not here around us, “_those there_ hungry ones”,

disc
acc 3pl clt
pres neg exist around acc 1pl hungry pl def dist adj

28 (c) [0:59]      and that's why [unintelligible] “_those there_ hungry ones”.

and
for.that adv hungry pl def dist adj

29 (GK)       Aha.

bkch

30 (c) [1:00]      That means they aren't [here] with us.

mean 3sg pres I nom 3pl
neg
3pl pres cop clt with
acc 1pl

31 (GK)       Aha, aha. So they, this –

disc disc
disc
ost this sg n adj
3sg pres cop clt

32 (b) [1:03]      They're absent.

nom 3pl
acc refl clt
be.absent 3pl pres I

33 (GK)       But can't you explain it by [saying]

but
neg
can pres imprs
interr clt
comp
acc refl clt
explain 3sg pres P thus adv

34 (GK)       that the one who is speaking is one of, of these people,

that conj
nom m 3sg who sg m rel speak 3sg pres I
3sg pres cop clt
part sg f
of
of
this pl adj people pl

35 (GK)       and for that reason he uses -s- [“these here”]?

and
therefore adv
acc refl clt
use 3sg pres I pl def prox

36 (b) [1:10]      Sure, you can [if you want].

disc
can pres imprs
adrs

37 (GK)       I thought that's why it's “_these here_ hungry ones”, not [just] “_the_ hungry ones.”

nom 1sg think 1sg pres I
that conj
therefore adv
acc refl clt
use 3sg pres I hungry pl def prox adj
and
not hungry pl def med adj

38 (b) [1:19]      [Saying just] “_the_ hungry ones” means you're not part of them.

hungry pl def med adj mean 3sg pres I nom 2sg
neg
participate 2sg pres I

39 (GK)       Yes.

yes

40 (b) [1:21]      And [the word] hungry…

and
[...]
hungry pl adj

41 (GK)       [with] _these here_ [added]

pl def prox

42 (b) [1:23]      [with] _these here_ [added], it's still possible that you're not part of them.

pl def prox
again adv can pres imprs
comp
neg
participate 2sg pres I

43 (GK)       In what way?

how interr

44 (c) [1:26]      [by adding] _these here_, because you're saying “_these here_ hungry ones”.

pl def prox
when conj say 2sg pres I hungry pl def prox adj

45 (GK)       It means they are near him somehow.

mean 3sg pres I
3pl pres cop clt
by
acc m 3sg somewhere adv

46 (b) [1:29]      It's ARE (they are hungry), not _these here_. [Saying] “They are hungry”

hungry pl adj 3pl pres cop clt
neg
pl def prox
hungry pl adj 3pl pres cop clt

47 (b) [1:31]      means you're not part of the group. If you say “We are hungry”

mean 3sg pres I nom 2sg
neg
participate 2sg pres I if conj say 2sg pres P hungry pl adj 1pl pres cop clt

48 (GK)       Aha.

bkch

49 (b) [1:34]      then you are part of the group.

mean 3sg pres I participate 2sg pres I

50 (GK)       Aha. Well, [say] an old woman says – we're sitting by the road or

disc
disc
one f sg adj grandmother f sg call 3sg pres I sit 1pl pres I
to
to
road sg m def
or

51 (GK)       there in the house and I – and another old woman comes.

there adv
in
house sg f def
and
nom 1sg come 3sg pres I other sg f adj grandmother f sg

52 (GK)       I get up [to give her my] chair and she says, “No, [go on and] sit there.

nom 1sg arise 1sg pres I
from
chair sg m def
and
nom f 3sg
dat 1sg clt
call 3sg pres I
disc
sit sg imv I
dat refl clt

53 (GK)       Sit a bit. Very few people respect _these here_ old ones.”

sit sg imv I little adv little adv people pl respect 3pl pres I old pl def prox adj people pl

54 (GK)       Why does she say “_these here_ old people” and not “_the_ old” or “_those there_ old”?

why interr
acc n 3sg clt
say 3sg pres I old pl def prox adj people pl
but
neg
old pl def med adj
or
old pl def dist adj

55 (b) [1:55]      “_These here_ old” means that she belongs to the category “_these here_ old”.

old pl def prox adj mean 3sg pres I
and
nom f 3sg enter 3sg pres I
in
this sg n med adj number sg n old pl def prox adj

56 (GK)       Aha.

disc

57 (b) [1:59]      If she says “_those there_ old people” that means she doesn't belong

if conj say 3sg pres P old pl def dist adj people pl mean 3sg pres I nom f 3sg
neg
enter 3sg pres I

58 (b) [2:01]      to that category. It means she thinks of herself as younger.

in
this sg n med adj number sg n mean 3sg pres I nom f 3sg
acc refl clt
reckon 3sg pres I
for
more young f sg adj

59 (GK)       [And] if she says “_the_ old [ones]?”

if conj
say 3sg pres P old pl def med adj

60 (b) [2:05]      [As in] “_the_ old people aren't very respected these days”?

little adv
neg
respect 3pl pres I old pl def med adj people pl

61 (GK)       Yes.

yes

62 (b) [2:08]      [Now] it means that she's part of the group again.

mean 3sg pres I again adv
and
nom f 3sg participate 3sg pres I

63 (GK)       Uh huh.

bkch

64 (b) [2:11]      Either “_those there_ old [ones]” or “_the_ old [ones]” – she's part of the group.

and
old pl def prox adj
and
old pl def med adj
and
nom f 3sg enter 3sg pres I in
crowd sg m def

65 (GK)       [This is] very important.

very adv important sg n adj

66 (b) [2:16]      Both [ways of saying it are OK].

and
two n def

67 (GK)       Yes?

yes

68 (b) [2:18]      Which means that she too is –

mean 3sg pres I
and
nom f 3sg
3sg pres cop clt

69 (GK)       So she too –

and
nom f 3sg

70 (b) [2:19]      It depends – it depends how the moment in the conversation is going,

nom sg n depend 3sg pres I nom sg n depend 3sg pres I with
moment sg m def how interr
acc refl clt
follow 3pl pres I conversation sg m def

71 (b) [2:23]      how the actual conversation [is going], because she can use

very sg m def adj conversation sg m how interr because can 3sg pres I
comp
use 3sg pres I

72 (b) [2:27]      “_the_ old [ones]” in one instance, and “_these here_ old [ones]” in another.

in
sg m def med adj instance sg m old pl def med adj
in
other m def adj instance sg m old pl def prox adj

73 (GK)       [So] if someone

if conj
someone sg m

74 (b)       [unintelligible]

75 (GK)       has [already] mentioned “_these here_ old [ones]”, then

3sg pres aux clt
mention sg m L.part P old pl def prox adj then adv

76 (GK)       could she say [in the same conversation] “_the_ old [ones]”?

nom f 3sg
hes
3sg cond
interr clt
can sg f L.part I
comp
say 3sg pres P old pl def med adj

77 (c) [2:34]      [Yes,] she can.

can 3sg pres I

78 (b) [2:35]      [No,] she can't.

neg
can 3sg pres I

79 (c) [2:36]      If someone [has] mentioned [them] earlier, and she says “_the_ old [ones]”

if conj mention 3sg pres P before acc 3pl someone sg m
[...]
and
nom f 3sg say 3sg pres I old pl def med adj

80 (GK)       So then in that [case], she can say it [“the old ones”].

and
then adv nom f 3sg can 3sg pres I
comp
say 3sg pres P

81 (c) [2:41]      Yes, then she [can] say “_the_ old ones” because they're past – “_the_ old ones”.

yes [...]
then med adv say 3sg pres I old pl def med adj because conj nom 3pl
3pl pres aux clt
pass pl L.part P old pl def med adj

82 (b) [2:43]      Ah, right. [The ones] that are past [= already mentioned in the conversation]. Yes.

disc
rel med
3pl pres aux clt
pass pl L.part P
disc

83 (GK)       So [then] if you say “_this here_ old man talks really coarsely,”

disc
comp
say 2sg pres P old.man sg m def prox much adv speak 3sg pres I ugly adv

84 (GK)       where – where does he need to be? Does he need to be [right] here?

must pres imprs
comp
3sg pres cop clt
where interr must pres imprs
comp
3sg pres cop clt
here adv
interr clt

85 (b) [2:52]      He needs to be here. “_This here_ old man talks really coarsely.”

must pres imprs
comp
3sg pres cop clt
here adv old.man sg m def prox much adv speak 3sg pres I ugly adv

86 (GK)       Yes.

yes

87 (b) [2:55]      If he's not here, [then] “_that there_ old man”.

if conj
3sg pres cop clt
acc m 3sg clt
pres neg exist here adv old.man sg m def dist

88 (GK)       Yes.

yes

89 (b) [2:57]      For instance, [about] old Zhelyu: “_That there_ old man Zheluvsky talks really coarsely”

for.example adv old sg m adj Zhelyo sg m name old.man sg m def dist Zhelyovski sg m name much adv speak 3sg pres I ugly adv interr

90 (GK)       Uh huh.

bkch

91 (b) [3:02]      [But] if he's here [you'd say], “This here old man talks really coarsely.”

if conj
3sg pres cop clt
here adv
[...]
ost
this sg m prox adj old.man sg m much adv speak 3sg pres I ugly adv

92 (b) [3:04]      That means [you're talking about] this here man …

ost
this sg m prox adj old.man sg m mean 3sg pres I

93 (GK)       O.K. then.

disc

94 (b) [3:06]      … it refers to him. [Whoever's speaking] is pointing to him.

for
acc m 3sg
acc refl clt
refer 3sg pres I indicate 3sg pres I
acc m 3sg clt

95 (GK)       When I was at a [certain] old woman's house she said [the following] to me:

nom 1sg when conj 1sg impf cop
by
one f sg adj grandmother sg m nom f 3sg
dat 1sg clt
call 3sg pres I thus adv

96 (GK)       “_This here_ old man died recently; we just did the ritual forty-day observance.”

old.man sg m def prox die 3sg aor P recently adv make 1pl aor I
dat m 3sg clt
forty day ct m recently adv

97 (b) [3:15]      Yeah.

disc

98 (GK)       The old man isn't around any more. So why did she say “_this here_ old man”

old.man sg m def
acc m 3sg clt
pres neg exist nom f 3sg why interr say 3sg pres I old.man sg m def prox

99 (GK)       and not “_that there_ old man”?

and
neg
[...]
old.man sg m def dist

100 (c) [3:20]      Because he had been hers.

because
3sg pres aux clt
her sg n adj be sg n L.part

101 (GK)       What?

disc

102 (b) [3:23]      He had been her spouse.

her sg m adj spouse sg m
3sg pres aux clt
be sg m L.part

103 (c) [3:24]      He'd been hers.

her sg m adj
3sg pres aux clt
be sg m L.part

104 (GK)       Aha!

disc

105 (c) [3:26]      The old man had been her husband. So that old man, let's say –

old.man sg m def her sg m adj man sg m
3sg pres aux clt
be sg m L.part that sg m dist adj old sg m def adj
comp
say 1pl pres P

106 (c) [3:29]      if he had not been her husband, he [would have] been her grandfather

if conj
3sg pres cop clt
neg
be sg m L.part
man sg m be sg m L.part
dat f 3sg clt
3sg pres aux clt
grandfather sg m

107 (c) [3:31]      Understand? You see, they'd still say “_the- old man”.

understand 2sg pres I
interr clt
but
again adv say 3sg pres I old.man sg m def

108 (GK)       “_That there_ old man”.

old.man sg m def dist

109 (c) [3:33]      “_The_ old man”.

old.man sg m def

110 (GK)       [I ask] because I was at the same old woman's and she said [at] one point,

because 1sg impf cop
and
by
same sg f def adj grandmother f sg
dat 1sg clt
call 3sg pres I mean 3sg pres I one sg m adj time m

111 (GK)       “[My] _this here_ son is ill”, and he's in _this here_ house,

son sg m def prox ill sg m adj nom sg n lie 3sg pres I
in
house sg f def prox

112 (b) [3:42]      _this here_ house (corrects pronunciation to that of local dialect)

house sg f def prox

113 (GK)       _this here_ house. But her son wasn't there with us, he was in his room.

house sg f def prox
but
son sg m def
acc m 3sg clt
pres neg exist
by
acc 1pl nom m 3sg
3sg pres cop clt
in
room sg f def

114 (GK)       [Still] she said “[My] _this here_ son is ill.” But after that

disc
nom f 3sg say 3sg pres I son sg m def prox ill sg m adj
but
after this sg n adj

115 (GK)       she said “[my] _that there_ daughter-in-law

call 3sg pres I daughter.in.law sg f def dist

116 (b) [3:50]      _this here_ son (corrects pronunciation again)

son sg m def prox

117 (GK)       Huh?

disc

118 (b) [3:51]      _this here_ son

son sg m def prox

119 (GK)       _this here_ son

son sg m def prox

120 (b) [3:52]      [My] _this here_ son is ill

son sg m def prox
3sg pres cop clt
ill sg m adj

121 (GK)       “[My] _this here_ son is ill, he is in _this here_ house.”

son sg m def prox
3sg pres cop clt
ill sg m adj nom sg n lie 3sg pres I
in
house sg f def prox

122 (b) [3:54]      “… in _this here_ house”; yes [that's right].

in
house sg f def prox yes

123 (GK)       But right after that she said “[My] _that there_ daughter in law” – she's working

and
and after this sg n adj call 3sg pres I daughter.in.law sg f def dist
hes
nom f 3sg work 3sg pres I

124 (GK)       somewhere around there; the daughter-in-law wasn't actually there [with us].

there adv somewhere adv
dat refl clt
daughter.in.law sg f def
acc f 3sg clt
pres neg exist really adv

125 (GK)       So I don't know whether it would – but I got the impression that

neg
know 1sg pres I interr fut
and
disc
dat 1sg clt
make 3sg pres P impresssion sg n
that conj

126 (GK)       she said “_this here_ son” but “_that there_ daughter-in law”

say 3sg aor P son sg m def prox
but
but daughter.in.law sg f def dist

127 (GK)       or “_that there_ daughter-in law”; I don't know how [it] was [pronounced].

or
daughter.in.law sg f dist
neg
know 1sg pres I how interr 3sg impf cop

128 (b) [4:07]      Look here. It's because he's in _that there_ village or somewhere around

see sg imv P now adv disc because adv
3sg pres cop clt
in
village sg n def dist
or
3sg pres cop clt
around

129 (b) [4:11]      _that there_ house, and that's why she uses [the form] “[my]_this here_ son”.

house sg f def dist
and
nom f 3sg
therefore adv use 3sg pres I son sg m def prox

130 (GK)       And not because he's hers.

and
not because conj
3sg pres cop clt
her sg m adj

131 (b) [4:13]      If, uh, if, let's say she's from Koshnitsa

if conj
3sg pres cop clt
if conj
comp
say 1pl pres P nom f 3sg
3sg pres cop clt
from
Koshnitsa sg f place

132 (b) [4:17]      and her son is sick there in Koshnitsa, she'll say

son sg m def
dat f 3sg clt
lie 3sg pres I in
Koshnitsa sg f place ill sg m adj
fut
say 3sg pres P

133 (b) [4:21]      “[My] _that there_ son is sick in _that there_ house.”

son sg m def dist lie 3sg pres I
in
house sg f def dist ill sg m adj

134 (GK)       Aha.

disc

135 (b) [4:23]      That is, she's from another village.

mean 3sg pres I nom f 3sg
3sg pres cop clt
from
other sg n adj village sg n

136 (GK)       Yes.

yes

137 (b) [4:24]      If she's here [at] the moment, in _that there_ district, or near _the_ house,

if conj
3sg pres cop clt
here adv moment sg m def
in
district sg f def dist
or
by
house sg f def med

138 (b) [4:28]      she'll say to you “[My] _that there_ son is inside _that there_ house.”

nom f 3sg
fut
dat 2sg clt
say 3sg pres P son sg m def prox lie 3sg pres I inside adv
in
house sg f def dist

139 (GK)       “Inside _that there_ house, sick.” No, [what] I wondered [was]

inside adv
in
house sg f def dist ill sg m adj
no
nom 1sg
dat refl clt
think 1sg aor P

140 (GK)       whether they're divided into kinship by blood or kinship by marriage.

interr
acc 3pl clt
divide 3sg pres I
in
blood sg n adj kinship sg n
or
in
non.blood sg n adj kinship sg n

141 (GK)       That is, her son is blood kin [to her], he belongs to her …

mean 3sg pres I son sg m def
dat f 3sg clt
3sg pres cop clt
blood sg n adj kinship sg n nom sg n
dat refl clt
3sg pres cop clt
her sg n adj

142 (b) [4:38]      He belongs to her. He's hers.

nom sg n
dat refl clt
3sg pres cop clt
her sg n adj her sg n adj
3sg pres cop clt

143 (GK)       … and that's why she said “ _this here_ son”.

thus adv say 3sg pres I son sg m def prox

144 (GK)       But the daughter-in-law is not blood kin …

and
but daughter.in.law sg f def neg
3sg pres cop clt
blood sg n adj kinship sg n

145 (c) [4:42]      She's not.

neg
3sg pres cop clt

146 (GK)       … and that's why she then said “[my] _that there_ daughter-in-law”, or

and
thus adv call 3sg pres I there adv daughter.in.law sg f def dist
or

147 (GK)       “ _that there_ daughter-in-law”, or “ _that there_ daughter-in-law”, or whatever.

daughter.in.law sg f def dist
or
daughter.in.law sg f def dist what sg n interr

148 (b) [4:47]      “_That there_ daughter-in-law is working somewhere or another.”

daughter.in.law sg f def dist work 3sg pres I somewhere adv
dat refl clt

149 (GK)       Yes.

yes

150 (b) [4:49]      Or maybe “_That there_ daughter-in-law went off somewhere or another.”

or
but daughter.in.law sg f dist go sg f L.part P somewhere adv
dat refl clt

151 (GK)       But for her son, she can say “[My] _this here_ son went off …”

and
but
for
son sg m def
dat refl clt
can pres imprs say 3sg pres P son sg m def prox go 3sg aor P

152 (b) [4:53]      “ … went off to gather wood.”

go 3sg aor P
comp
gather 3sg pres I wood pl n

153 (GK)       Yes.

yes

154 (c) [4:57]      He's hers.

nom sg n
3sg pres cop clt
her sg n adj

155 (GK)       He's hers.

nom sg n
3sg pres cop clt
her sg n adj

156 (c) [4:58]      He's hers.

nom sg n
3sg pres cop clt
her sg n adj

157 (GK)       And that's why [she'd say it] like that.

thus adv thus adv

158 (b) [4:59]      I tell you, _that there_ daughter-in-law doesn't manage the housework!

much adv
dat 1sg clt
adrs
neg
do.housework 3sg pres I daughter.in.law sg n def prox

159 (c)       [laughter]

160 (b)       [laughter]

161 (GK)       “I tell you, … ?”

much adv
dat 1sg clt
adrs
neg

162 (b) [5:03]      _That there_ daughter-in-law doesn't manage the housework!

neg
do.housework 3sg pres I daughter.in.law sg n def prox

163 (GK)       You don't complete ?

neg
complete 2sg pres I

164 (b) [5:06]      SHE doesn't do the housework –

neg
do.housework 3sg pres I

165 (GK)       Yes?

yes

166 (b) [5:07]      “_that there_ daughter-in-law.”

daughter.in.law sg n def prox

167 (b) [5:08]      It means that [the mother-in-law] isn't happy with the daughter-in-law.

mean 3sg pres I that.is adv
3sg pres cop clt
neg satisfied sg f adj
from
daughter.in.law sg n def med

         So look now. If I'll say to [the boss], "Hey boss, _these here_ people are hungry" ...


         _These here_ people are hungry.


         ... that means that the people are hungry.


         Aha.


         "Aren't you going to give them [enough] to eat their fill?" – to eat our fill?


         Yeah


         Or if I'm a participant in that group, I'd say “… [for us] to eat our fill.”


         Yes. Well, no. If someone needs to say “Where do you bury the hungry ones?”


         how will he say it, if he [himself] is among these, the hungry ones?


         Hung – [he'd say] “Where are we going to bury _these here_ hungry ones?”


         [laughter] So then, “_these here_ hungry ones.” But why does he use _these here_?


         Why does he say “_these here_ hungry ones” and not [just] “_the_ hungry ones”?


         “_These here_ hungry ones” because at the moment [of speech] they are HUNGRY!


         If they've died, then where are you going to bury _the_ hungry ones?


         Aha.


         So there. It's the time that's happening now. [It's] the present tense.


         Aha.


         and “_the_ hungry ones” is in the past tense.


         Uh huh,


         You see?


         Uh huh.


         “_These here_ hungry ones”: the present. [But] “_the_ hungry ones” is in the past.


         And “_those there_ hungry ones”?


          “_Those there_ hungry ones” means the future.


         They are not here.


         They're not here.


         They're not here around us, “_those there_ hungry ones”,


         and that's why [unintelligible] “_those there_ hungry ones”.


         Aha.


         That means they aren't [here] with us.


         Aha, aha. So they, this –


         They're absent.


         But can't you explain it by [saying]


         that the one who is speaking is one of, of these people,


         and for that reason he uses -s- [“these here”]?


         Sure, you can [if you want].


         I thought that's why it's “_these here_ hungry ones”, not [just] “_the_ hungry ones.”


         [Saying just] “_the_ hungry ones” means you're not part of them.


         Yes.


         And [the word] hungry…


         [with] _these here_ [added]


         [with] _these here_ [added], it's still possible that you're not part of them.


         In what way?


         [by adding] _these here_, because you're saying “_these here_ hungry ones”.


          It means they are near him somehow.


         It's ARE (they are hungry), not _these here_. [Saying] “They are hungry”


         means you're not part of the group. If you say “We are hungry”


         Aha.


         then you are part of the group.


          Aha. Well, [say] an old woman says – we're sitting by the road or


         there in the house and I – and another old woman comes.


         I get up [to give her my] chair and she says, “No, [go on and] sit there.


         Sit a bit. Very few people respect _these here_ old ones.”


          Why does she say “_these here_ old people” and not “_the_ old” or “_those there_ old”?


         “_These here_ old” means that she belongs to the category “_these here_ old”.


         Aha.


         If she says “_those there_ old people” that means she doesn't belong


         to that category. It means she thinks of herself as younger.


         [And] if she says “_the_ old [ones]?”


         [As in] “_the_ old people aren't very respected these days”?


         Yes.


         [Now] it means that she's part of the group again.


         Uh huh.


         Either “_those there_ old [ones]” or “_the_ old [ones]” – she's part of the group.


         [This is] very important.


         Both [ways of saying it are OK].


         Yes?


         Which means that she too is –


         So she too –


         It depends – it depends how the moment in the conversation is going,


         how the actual conversation [is going], because she can use


         “_the_ old [ones]” in one instance, and “_these here_ old [ones]” in another.


         [So] if someone


         [unintelligible]


         has [already] mentioned “_these here_ old [ones]”, then


         could she say [in the same conversation] “_the_ old [ones]”?


         [Yes,] she can.


         [No,] she can't.


         If someone [has] mentioned [them] earlier, and she says “_the_ old [ones]”


         So then in that [case], she can say it [“the old ones”].


         Yes, then she [can] say “_the_ old ones” because they're past – “_the_ old ones”.


         Ah, right. [The ones] that are past [= already mentioned in the conversation]. Yes.


         So [then] if you say “_this here_ old man talks really coarsely,”


         where – where does he need to be? Does he need to be [right] here?


         He needs to be here. “_This here_ old man talks really coarsely.”


         Yes.


         If he's not here, [then] “_that there_ old man”.


         Yes.


         For instance, [about] old Zhelyu: “_That there_ old man Zheluvsky talks really coarsely”


         Uh huh.


          [But] if he's here [you'd say], “This here old man talks really coarsely.”


         That means [you're talking about] this here man …


         O.K. then.


         … it refers to him. [Whoever's speaking] is pointing to him.


         When I was at a [certain] old woman's house she said [the following] to me:


         “_This here_ old man died recently; we just did the ritual forty-day observance.”


         Yeah.


         The old man isn't around any more. So why did she say “_this here_ old man”


         and not “_that there_ old man”?


         Because he had been hers.


         What?


         He had been her spouse.


         He'd been hers.


         Aha!


         The old man had been her husband. So that old man, let's say –


         if he had not been her husband, he [would have] been her grandfather


         Understand? You see, they'd still say “_the- old man”.


         “_That there_ old man”.


         “_The_ old man”.


         [I ask] because I was at the same old woman's and she said [at] one point,


         “[My] _this here_ son is ill”, and he's in _this here_ house,


         _this here_ house (corrects pronunciation to that of local dialect)


         _this here_ house. But her son wasn't there with us, he was in his room.


         [Still] she said “[My] _this here_ son is ill.” But after that


         she said “[my] _that there_ daughter-in-law


         _this here_ son (corrects pronunciation again)


         Huh?


         _this here_ son


         _this here_ son


         [My] _this here_ son is ill


         “[My] _this here_ son is ill, he is in _this here_ house.”


          “… in _this here_ house”; yes [that's right].


         But right after that she said “[My] _that there_ daughter in law” – she's working


         somewhere around there; the daughter-in-law wasn't actually there [with us].


         So I don't know whether it would – but I got the impression that


         she said “_this here_ son” but “_that there_ daughter-in law”


         or “_that there_ daughter-in law”; I don't know how [it] was [pronounced].


         Look here. It's because he's in _that there_ village or somewhere around


         _that there_ house, and that's why she uses [the form] “[my]_this here_ son”.


         And not because he's hers.


         If, uh, if, let's say she's from Koshnitsa


         and her son is sick there in Koshnitsa, she'll say


         “[My] _that there_ son is sick in _that there_ house.”


         Aha.


          That is, she's from another village.


         Yes.


         If she's here [at] the moment, in _that there_ district, or near _the_ house,


         she'll say to you “[My] _that there_ son is inside _that there_ house.”


         “Inside _that there_ house, sick.” No, [what] I wondered [was]


         whether they're divided into kinship by blood or kinship by marriage.


         That is, her son is blood kin [to her], he belongs to her …


         He belongs to her. He's hers.


          … and that's why she said “ _this here_ son”.


         But the daughter-in-law is not blood kin …


         She's not.


         … and that's why she then said “[my] _that there_ daughter-in-law”, or


         “ _that there_ daughter-in-law”, or “ _that there_ daughter-in-law”, or whatever.


         “_That there_ daughter-in-law is working somewhere or another.”


         Yes.


         Or maybe “_That there_ daughter-in-law went off somewhere or another.”


         But for her son, she can say “[My] _this here_ son went off …”


         “ … went off to gather wood.”


         Yes.


         He's hers.


         He's hers.


         He's hers.


         And that's why [she'd say it] like that.


         I tell you, _that there_ daughter-in-law doesn't manage the housework!


         [laughter]


         [laughter]


         “I tell you, … ?”


         _That there_ daughter-in-law doesn't manage the housework!


         You don't complete ?


         SHE doesn't do the housework –


         Yes?


         “_that there_ daughter-in-law.”


         It means that [the mother-in-law] isn't happy with the daughter-in-law.


1 (b) [0:01]       əми вѝш сега̀ əку ше му рѐкə чо̀рбəжи л’удѐсу сə гла̀дни

2 (GK)       л’удѐсу са гла̀дни

3 (b) [0:06]       зна̀чи hо̀рəтə са гла̀дни

4 (GK)       əhə

5 (b) [0:08]       нѐмə ли дə дəдѐш дə сə нəйəдо̂̀т или дə сə нəйəдѐм

6 (GK)       йа̀

7 (b) [0:12]       ли əку а̀с уча̀ствəм ф т’а̀h зна̀чи дə сə нəйəдѐм

8 (GK)       да̀ ə нѐ ако тр’а̀бва дə дə ка̀же гла̀дните кəдѐ ги пугрѝбате

9 (GK)       ка̀к ше гу ка̀же и то̀й е между тѝйа гла̀дните

10 (b) [0:24]       гла̀н гла̀днисе кəдѐ ше ги пугребѐм

11 (GK)       [смях] зна̀чи гла̀днисе и зашто̀ го употреб’а̀ва съ̀

12 (GK)       зашто̀ ка̀зва гла̀днисе и не ка̀зва гла̀дните

13 (b) [0:33]       гла̀днисе зəшто̀ту ф мум’ѐнтə сə гла̀дни

14 (b) [0:37]       əку сə умре̂̀ли туга̀вə гла̀дните кəдѐ ше ги пугребѐте

15 (GK)       əhə

16 (b) [0:42]       и тъ̀й вəф мумѐнтə се извъ̀ршвə врѐме сега̀шно врѐме

17 (GK)       əхə

18 (b) [0:45]       а гла̀дните е вəф мѝнəлу врѐме

19 (GK)       əхə

20 (b) [0:47]       разбѝраш ли

21 (GK)       əхə

22 (b) [0:48]       гла̀днисе сега̀шно гла̀дните е ф мѝнало

23 (GK)       а гла̀днине

24 (b) [0:54]       гла̀днине зна̀чи бъ̀деште

25 (c) [0:55]       то̀ ги нѐмə

26 (b) [0:56]       н’а̀мə ги

27 (c) [0:57]       то̀ ги нѐмə укулу на̀с гла̀нине

28 (c) [0:59]       и затва̀ [неразбрано] гла̀днинѐ

29 (GK)       əхə

30 (c) [1:00]       зна̀чи тѐ не съ̀ сəс на̀с

31 (GK)       əхə əхə е тѐ тува̀ е

32 (b) [1:03]       тѐ сə утсъ̀тствəт

33 (GK)       а не мо̀же ли дə се уб’аснѝ тəка̀

34 (GK)       че то̀о ко̀йту гово̀ри е ча̀ст ут ут тийə хо̀ра

35 (GK)       и затова̀ сə употреб’а̀вə съ̀

36 (b) [1:10]       че мо̀же бе

37 (GK)       а̀с мѝсл’ə че затова̀ се употреб’а̀вə гла̀днисѐ а нѐ гла̀днитѐ

38 (b) [1:19]       гла̀дните зна̀чи тѝ не уча̀ствəш

39 (GK)       да̀

40 (b) [1:21]       а гла гла̀дни

41 (GK)       се

42 (b) [1:23]       сѐ па̀к мо̀же дə не уча̀ствəш

43 (GK)       ка̀к

44 (c) [1:26]       сѐ што̀м ка̀звəш гла̀днисѐ

45 (GK)       зна̀чи са до нѐго нѐйде

46 (b) [1:29]       гла̀дни са̀ не сѐ гла̀дни са̀

47 (b) [1:31]       зна̀чи тѝ не уча̀ствəш əку ка̀жеш гла̀дни смѐ

48 (GK)       əхə

49 (b) [1:34]       зна̀чи уча̀ствəш

50 (GK)       əхə че една̀ ба̀ба вѝка ə седѝм нə нə пъ̀т’ə или

51 (GK)       та̀м ф къ̀штəтə и а̀с ѝдва дру̀га ба̀ба

52 (GK)       а̀с ста̀вам ут сто̀ла и т’а̀ ми вѝка а сѐди си

53 (GK)       сѐди ма̀лко ма̀лко л’уде уважа̀ват ста̀рисе хо̀ра

54 (GK)       што̀ го ка̀зва ста̀рисе хо̀ра а не ста̀рите или ста̀рине

55 (b) [1:55]       ста̀рисе зна̀чи и т’а̀ влѝзə ф тува̀ число̀ ста̀рисе

56 (GK)       əхə̀

57 (b) [1:59]       əку ка̀же ста̀рине л’у̀д’е зна̀чи т’а̀ не влѝзə

58 (b) [2:01]       ф това̀ число̀ зна̀чи т’а̀ се см’а̀тə зə по̀ мла̀да

59 (GK)       ако ка̀же ста̀рите

60 (b) [2:05]       ма̀лку нə уважа̀вəт ста̀ритѐ л’у̀д’е

61 (GK)       да̀

62 (b) [2:08]       зна̀чи па̀к и т’а̀ уча̀ствə

63 (GK)       əхə

64 (b) [2:11]       и ста̀рисе и ста̀рит’е и т’а̀ влѝзə вəф к’у̀пə

65 (GK)       мно̀го ва̀жно

66 (b) [2:16]       ѝ двѐте̂

67 (GK)       да̀

68 (b) [2:18]       на̀чи и т’е̂̀ е

69 (GK)       и т’е̂̀

70 (b) [2:19]       то̀ завѝси то̀ завѝси сəс мом’ѐнта ка̀к се сл’ѐдват муhəбѐтə

71 (b) [2:23]       сəмѝйə муhабѐт ка̀к [неразбрано] зəшто̀то мо̀же да испо̀лзва

72 (b) [2:27]       ф едѝнийə случай ста̀рɨтѐ в дру̀гийə слу̀чай ста̀рисѐ

73 (GK)       ако н’а̀кой

74 (b)       [неразбрано]

75 (GK)       е спомена̀л ста̀рисе тога̀ва

76 (GK)       т’а̀ м бѝ ли могла̀ да ка̀же ста̀рите

77 (c) [2:34]       мо̀же

78 (b) [2:35]       не мо̀же

79 (c) [2:36]       əку поменѐ предѝ т’а̀h н’е̂̀кой ас и т’а̀ ка̀звə ста̀рите

80 (GK)       и тога̀с т’а̀ мо̀же да ка̀же

81 (c) [2:41]       да̀ тога̀ тога̀ва ка̀зва ста̀рите о̀т тѐ сə мѝнəли ста̀рите

82 (b) [2:43]       а̀ дѐт сə мѝнəли а̀

83 (GK)       че да ка̀жеш ста̀рцəс йе̂̀це ду̀ма гро̀зно

84 (GK)       тр’а̀бва да е кəдѐ тр’а̀бва да е ту̀ка ли

85 (b) [2:52]       тр’а̀бвə дə е ту̀кə ста̀рецəс е̂̀це ду̀ми гро̀зну

86 (GK)       да̀

87 (b) [2:55]       ако а го н’а̀мə ту̀кə ста̀рецə̀н

88 (GK)       да̀

89 (b) [2:57]       прѝмерно ста̀р жѐл’у ста̀рецəн жѐлуфски е̂̀це ду̀мə гро̀зну нəлѝ

90 (GK)       əхə

91 (b) [3:02]       əку е ту̀кə с е со̀ə ста̀рец е̂̀це ду̀мə гро̀зну

92 (b) [3:04]       е со̀ə ста̀рец зна̀чи

93 (GK)       добрѐ

94 (b) [3:06]       зə нѐго се отна̀с’а пусо̀чвə гу

95 (GK)       а̀с като б’а̀х при една̀ баба т’а̀ ми вѝка тəка̀

96 (GK)       ста̀рчесу̀ умрѐ ско̀ро пра̀ихме му четѝресе дѐна ско̀ру

97 (b) [3:15]       а̀

98 (GK)       ста̀рецə гу н’а̀ма т’а̀ зашто ка̀звə ста̀рчесу̀

99 (GK)       а не с ста̀рчену̀

100 (c) [3:20]       о̀ту е нѐhну бѝлу

101 (GK)       а

102 (b) [3:23]       нѐин сəпру̀к е бѝл

103 (c) [3:24]       нѐhин е бѝл

104 (GK)       а̀а

105 (c) [3:26]       ста̀рецə нѐhин мъ̀с е бѝл у̀нее ста̀рийə дə речѐме

106 (c) [3:29]       əку е нѐ бил мъ̀ш бѝл hи е дѐду

107 (c) [3:31]       рəзбѝрəш ли мə па̀к ка̀звə ста̀рецə

108 (GK)       ста̀рецəн

109 (c) [3:33]       ста̀рецə

110 (GK)       што̀то б’а̀х и при съ̀штата ба̀ба ми вѝка зна̀чи едѝн пъ̀т

111 (GK)       синъ̀с бо̀лен то̀ лежѝ ф къ̀штаса

112 (b) [3:42]       ко̂̀штəсə

113 (GK)       ко̂̀штəсə а синъ̀ го н’а̀ма при на̀с то̀й е вəв ста̀йата

114 (GK)       но т’а̀ вика синъ̀з бо̀лен а слет ту̀й

115 (GK)       вѝка снаха̀на

116 (b) [3:50]       сино̂̀с

117 (GK)       а̀

118 (b) [3:51]       сино̂̀с

119 (GK)       сино̂̀с

120 (b) [3:52]       сино̂̀с е бо̀лен

121 (GK)       сино̂̀с е бо̀лен то̀ лежѝ в ко̂̀штəсə

122 (b) [3:54]       ф ко̂̀штəсə да̀

123 (GK)       ə пəк слет ту̀й вѝка снəхо̂̀нə ə т’а̀ рабо̀ти

124 (GK)       та̀м н’а̀кəде си снаха̀та йə н’а̀мə действѝтелно

125 (GK)       не зна̀м далѝ ште и но ми напра̀ви фпечатлѐние че

126 (GK)       ка̀за сино̂̀с ə пəк снəхо̂̀нə

127 (GK)       или сна̀хəнə не зна̀м ка̀к бѐше

128 (b) [4:07]       вѝш сега̀ то̀ понѐже е вəф с’ѐлуну или е укулу

129 (b) [4:11]       къ̀штəнə и т’а затова̀ испо̀лзва сино̂̀с

130 (GK)       а нѐ што̀ту е нѐин

131 (b) [4:13]       əко а̀ ако дə речѐм т’а̀ е ут ко̀шницə

132 (b) [4:17]       синъ̀ и лежѝ вəф ко̀шницə бо̀лен ше ка̀же

133 (b) [4:21]       сино̂̀н лежѝ ф ко̂̀штəнə бо̀лен

134 (GK)       əхə

135 (b) [4:23]       зна̀чи т’а̀ е уд дру̀го сѐлу

136 (GK)       да̀

137 (b) [4:24]       аку е айту̀вə момѐнтə ф мəhəло̂̀нə или до ко̂̀штəтə

138 (b) [4:28]       т’а ше ти ка̀же сино̂̀с лежѝ во̂̀тре ф ко̂̀штəнə

139 (GK)       во̂̀тре ф ко̂̀штəнə бо̀лен не а̀с си помислих

140 (GK)       далѝ ги делѝ на кръ̀вно ро̀тство или на нѐкръ̀вно ро̀тство

141 (GK)       зна̀чи синъ̀ и е кръ̀вно ро̀тство то̀ си е нѐйно

142 (b) [4:38]       то̀ си е нѐйно, нѐйно е

143 (GK)       зату̀й ка̀звə синъ̀с

144 (GK)       а пəк снаха̀та нѐ е кръ̀вно ро̀тство

145 (c) [4:42]       нѐ е

146 (GK)       и зату̀й вѝка та̀м снахо̂̀на или

147 (GK)       сно̂̀хəнə или сна̀хана ка̀кво

148 (b) [4:47]       сно̂̀hана ра̀бути ѐди.кəдѐ си

149 (GK)       да̀

150 (b) [4:49]       или пəк сна̀həнə утишла̀ ѐди.кəдѐ си

151 (GK)       а пəк за синъ̀ си мо̀же ка̀же сино̂̀с утѝде

152 (b) [4:53]       утѝде дə берѐ дəрва̀

153 (GK)       да̀

154 (c) [4:57]       то̀ е н’ѐйну

155 (GK)       то̀ е н’ѐйну

156 (c) [4:58]       то̀ е н’ѐйну

157 (GK)       зату̀й така̀

158 (b) [4:59]       йе̂̀це ми марѝ не во̂̀рши снəhѝштесу

159 (c)       [смях]

160 (b)       [смях]

161 (GK)       йе̂̀це ми марѝ не

162 (b) [5:03]       нə во̂̀рши снəhѝштесу

163 (GK)       не во̂̀ршиш

164 (b) [5:06]       не во̂̀рши

165 (GK)       да̀

166 (b) [5:07]       снəhѝштесо̀

167 (b) [5:08]       зна̀чи демѐк е нѐ дуво̀лнə ут снəhа̀тə

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Comments and questions may be addressed to bdlt@berkeley.edu.

Recommended Model for Citations

Bulgarian Dialectology as Living Tradition [2016] (http://www.bulgariandialectology.org, visited on 1 March 2016)
Babjak 1: 13-15. In: Bulgarian Dialectology as Living Tradition [2016] (http://www.bulgariandialectology.org, visited on 1 March 2016)

Text | by Dr. Radut