Belica 2

1 (MM)       Wait a minute. Let’s see about the harvesting. How did you do that?

wait imv I now adv
comp
see 1pl pres P here adv
disc
harvest sg f def here adv how interr
acc f 3sg clt
do 2pl impf I

2 (a) [0:06]      Well, the harvest. We reap, we bundle [it up], we take and thresh

disc
harvest sg f def
dat refl clt
acc f 3sg clt
reap 1pl pres I tie 1pl pres I
dat refl clt
drive 1pl pres I
dat refl clt
thresh 1pl pres I
dat refl clt

3 (a) [0:11]      with horses, with oxen, with whatever there is.

with
horse pl m
with
ox pl m who sg m interr with
what rel have 3sg pres I

4 (MM)       So tell [it] to me, beginning from the harvest

hort
comp
dat 1sg clt
say 2sg pres P when conj begin 2pl pres P
from
harvest sg f def

5 (MM)       all up until the point when you take it off to the mill. How was that done?

to
when conj
acc n 3sg clt
drive 2pl pres P
to
mill sg f def how interr
acc refl clt
work 3sg impf I

6 (a) [0:19]      Well, we reap. So long as there’s harvest [going on], we reap.

disc
ost thus adv reap 1pl pres P
acc n 3sg clt
until conj pres exist harvest sg f reap 1pl pres I

7 (a) [0:23]      And then in the time up to St. Elias day – in the old days

after adv now adv this pl adj time sg m
ost
until
St.Elias's.day sg m nom m 3sg
by
old sg n adj

8 (a) [0:26]      it was St. Elias day. That’s on the second [of August], right?

3sg impf cop St.Elias's.day sg m that sg m adj
3sg pres cop clt
on
second sg m adj interr

9 (MM)       Yes, that’s right.

yes
thus adv

10 (a) [0:29]      We have to finish threshing by then because afterwards it’s less hot

disc
to
acc m 3sg must pres I imprs
and
comp
thresh 1pl pres P
because
after adv
hes
decrease 3sg pres I heat sg f def

11 (a) [0:35]      and it’s very hard to thresh. So we finish the threshing and gather [it up] –

and
hard adv
acc refl clt
thresh 3sg pres I
and
acc m 3sg clt
thresh 1pl pres P
and
gather 1pl pres P

12 (MM)       Wait a minute. Didn’t you say – and where do you – when you –

wait imv I now adv interr call 2sg impf I
and
where interr
acc n 3sg clt
when conj
acc n 3sg clt

13 (MM)       Some of you do the reaping, and what do the others do?

nom 2pl one pl adj reap 2pl pres I
and
other pl adj what sg n interr do 3pl pres I

14 (a) [0:43]      Well, all of us reap until the harvest is [brought home] ...

disc
all pl def adj reap 1pl pres I until conj
3sg pres cop clt
harvest sg f

15 (MM)       Right –

thus adv

16 (a) [0:45]      ... into the villages.

in
village pl n def

17 (MM)       And who ties [off the sheaves]?

and
which sg m interr tie 3sg pres I

18 (a) [0:47]      Well, the landowner, my husband, my father-in-law – the men tie them off.

disc
landowner sg m def man sg m def
dat 1sg clt
father.in.law sg m dat 1sg clt
and
man pl m def tie 3pl pres I

19 (a) [0:52]      We both reap and tie [off sheaves] all together.

and
reap 1pl pres I
and
tie 1pl pres I
dat refl clt
together adv

20 (MM)       Right. And –

thus adv
disc

21 (a) [0:57]      All of us tie [them off] together.

together adv
dat refl clt
tie 1pl pres I all pl adj

22 (MM)       And after that, how do you gath-

and
after adv
[…]
how interr
acc 3pl clt
[ … ]
[ … ]

23 (a) [1:00]      Then we carry the sheaves across ...

after adv carry 1pl pres P sheaf pl m def

24 (MM)       And where [unintelligible]

and
where interr

25 (a) [1:02]      ... and pile them up into cruciforms.

build 1pl pres P
dat refl clt
acc 3pl clt
in
cruciform pl n

26 (MM)       Where?

where interr

27 (a) [1:05]      Well, in the field.

disc
on
field sg f def

28 (MM)       In the field.

on
field sg f def

29 (a) [1:06]      Then we catch the oxen, or whatever one has for that [purpose], and

later adv catch 1pl pres P ox m def pl who sg m interr with
what rel
dat refl clt
have 3sg pres I
with
this sg n adj

30 (a) [1:10]      drive them into the threshing field. We put [the sheaves] in stacks

drive 1pl pres I
dat refl clt
acc 3pl clt
in
threshing.floor sg m def build 1pl pres P
acc 3pl clt
on
stack pl m

31 (a) [1:14]      and we begin to thresh.

and
begin 1pl pres I
comp
dat refl clt
thresh 1pl pres I

32 (MM)       Right –

thus adv

33 (a) [1:16]      We throw what we can off of the pile today, what we can tomorrow –

throw 3pl pres I
from
stack sg m def today adv how.much rel can 1pl pres I tomorrow adv how.much rel can pres imprs

34 (MM)       And how was the threshing done in the old days?

and
how interr
acc refl clt
thresh 3sg impf I one sg n adj time sg n

35 (a) [1:19]      Well, we drive the oxen, if not oxen then horses.

disc
drive 1pl pres I ox m def pl
if conj
neg
3pl pres cop clt ox m def pl horse pl m def

36 (a) [1:23]      They go in a circle, we turn [the sheaves] and toss [the grain] around …

encircle 3pl pres I turn 1pl pres I shake 1pl pres I

37 (MM)       But …

but

38 (a) [1:25]      … here

here adv

39 (MM)       … are they tied up [to something]? Are they tied up?

tie pl P.part P
interr clt
3pl pres cop clt
tie pl P.part P
interr clt
3pl pres cop clt

40 (a) [1:26]      In the yard – [yes, of course] the horses are tied

disc
in
yard sg m def
disc
horse pl m def
3pl pres cop clt
tie pl P.part P

41 (a) [1:29]      to what we call the threshing pole, in the middle of the yard.

for
pillar sg m
dat m 3sg clt
acc refl clt
say 3sg pres I amid yard sg m def

42 (MM)       Right

thus adv

43 (a) [1:33]      Well, now, you’re already somewhat knowledgeable [about this]!

adrs
nom 2sg something sg n
2sg pres cop clt
experienced sg m adj

44 (MM)       Well, I’ve been asking about this in other places.

disc
nom 1sg 1sg pres aux clt ask sg m L.part I
in
other pl adj place pl n

45 (MM)       [Now] I want to see what it’s like in your village.

want 1sg pres I
comp
see 1sg pres P
in
your sg n def adj village sg n how interr
3sg pres cop clt

46 (a) [1:38]      Mm

disc

47 (MM)       That makes sense, right?

interr
3sg pres cop clt
thus adv

48 (a) [1:39]      I got the feeling that you’re making inquiries about this [stuff]!

sense 1sg pres I
acc refl clt
nom 1sg
that conj
nom 2sg ask 2sg pres I something sg n
for
this sg n adj

49 (MM)       [laughter]

50 (a) [1:44]      And so. (We’re not going to go see when the bread [delivery will] come.)

and
disc
thus adv fut neg see 1pl pres P when interr come 3sg pres P bread sg m def

51 (a) [1:50]      So when we gather up the straw, we toss it in the loft.

and
when conj
acc n 3sg clt
gather 1pl pres P straw sg f def throw 1pl pres I
acc f 3sg clt
in
loft pl f def

52 (a) [1:55]      [Then] there’s the winnowers. We start putting [things] on the winnower.

winnower pl f pres exist begin 1pl pres I put 1sg pres I
on
winnower sg f def

53 (a) [1:59]      One [of us] shovels up grain, another's up above. The winnower's got a basket,

one sg m adj shovel.out 3sg pres I grain sg n def other sg m adj up.high adv winnower sg f def
dat refl clt
have 3sg pres I basket sg m there adv

54 (a) [2:04]      feeding into the winnower. We winnow out the grain – the chaff separately

give 3sg pres I
to
winnower sg f def winnow 1pl pres P grain sg n def chaff sg f def apart adv

55 (a) [2:07]      and the grain separately –and we store it away and that’s it. And after that –

grain sg n def apart adv put.away 1pl pres P
and
this sg n adj
3sg pres cop clt
after adv already adv

56 (MM)       Where do you all store it? Where do you store it away?

where interr
acc 3pl clt
put.away 2pl pres I where interr
acc 3pl clt
put.away 2sg pres I

57 (a) [2:11]      Well, wherever! In the loft, in the cellar, in the basement –

disc
where interr
ost
in
loft sg f in
hes
cellar sg m in
basement sg n

58 (a) [2:16]      it’s kept for the winter, for the animals to eat. [It’s] for the animals.

acc refl clt
hide 3sg pres I in.winter adv livestock sg f def
acc n 3sg clt
fut
acc n 3sg clt
eat 3sg pres I
for
livestock sg f def

59 (a) [2:21]      And as for the grain, we spread it out on rugs [and]

disc
and
ost
for
grain sg n def spread 1pl pres I
acc n 3sg clt
on
rug pl f

60 (a) [2:24]      dry it. Then we load it into sacks, on the cart,

dry 1pl pres P
acc n 3sg clt
raise 1pl pres I
acc n 3sg clt
in
sack m
with
cart sg f

61 (a) [2:27]      and go off to the mill and grind it …

go 1pl pres I
to
mill sg f def grind 1pl pres P
acc n 3sg clt

62 (MM)       Where –

where interr

63 (a) [2:30]      … into flour.

to
flour sg n

64 (MM)       Where is – where was the mill?

where interr pres exist where interr exist impf mill f

65 (a) [2:31]      Well, here along the rivers, on the water. There was a mill

disc
here adv
dat refl clt
exist impf
by
river pl f def
on
water sg f mill f

66 (a) [2:35]      with a stone that they call an emery stone. We’d grind up the flour,

with
stone sg m emery sg m stone sg m
dat m 3sg clt
say 3pl pres I grind 1pl pres P flour sg n def

67 (a) [2:40]      and eat black bread. We wouldn’t eat white bread, like [they do] now.

and
eat 1pl pres I black sg m adj bread sg m
neg
eat 1pl pres I like now adv white sg m adj

68 (MM)       And what was sown around here?

and
what sg n interr
acc refl clt
sow 3sg impf I here adv

69 (a) [2:43]      Well, there's a sieve!

disc
sieve sg n
dat refl clt
pres exist

70 (MM)       No, [I mean] what got planted here in the fields?

no
with
what sg n interr
acc refl clt
[ … ]
sow 3sg impf I here adv
by
field pl f def

71 (a) [2:48]      Ah, in the fields. In the morning when I go to the field and check it out,

disc
by
field pl f def morning adv when conj come 1sg pres P
to
field sg f def
and
when conj make.quick.survey 1sg pres P

72 (a) [2:52]      I plow with the oxen until afternoon prayer. And then I put the grain

and
plow 1sg pres I with
ox m def pl until conj noon sg f
and
after adv put 1sg pres I grain sg n def

73 (a) [2:57]      into what they call a “shinik”. I put it under my arm

in
hes
one sg m adj quarter.bushel sg m
dat m 3sg clt
say 3pl pres I put 1sg pres I take 1sg pres I
acc m 3sg clt
under
armpit sg f

74 (a) [3:03]      and with [my other] hand, take [seed], walk along the rows, and throw it out …

and
with
this sg f adj hand sg f take 1sg pres I
and
walk 1sg pres I
around
sowing.area sg f def
and
throw 1sg pres I

75 (MM)       Right.

thus adv

76 (a) [3:07]      ... to [the point where] they’ve made the furrow. I sow all of this one, and then

from
to
here adv
ost
here adv release sg n P.part I furrow sg f sow 1sg pres P this sg f adj after adv

77 (a) [3:11]      we sow it further on, and rake it over, and go home.

and
more further adv sow 1pl pres P
acc n 3sg clt
and
acc n 3sg clt
rake 1pl pres P
and
dat refl clt
walk 1pl pres I

78 (a) [3:15]      And the autumn [sowing] –

and
autumn sg n def adj

79 (MM)       But what did you sow [then]? Autumn wheat?

but
what sg n interr
acc refl clt
sow 3sg impf I
hes
autumn sg n def adj grain sg n
interr clt
3sg pres cop clt

80 (a) [3:17]      [For] autumn wheat, we sow it, then plow. And the plough buries it.

autumn sg n def adj grain sg n
acc n 3sg clt
[ … ]
sow 1pl pres P
and
plow 1pl pres I
and
plow sg n def
acc n 3sg clt
bury 3sg pres P

81 (MM)       Mhm

bkch

82 (a) [3:23]      But summer [wheat] – we rake it with what’s called a harrow, with brushwood.

and
summer sg n def adj
acc n 3sg clt
rake 1pl pres I with
harrow sg f
acc refl clt
say 3sg pres I with
brushwood sg f

83 (MM)       Yes.

yes

84 (a) [3:27]      And that’s how we worked.

and
disc thus adv
1pl pres aux clt
work

85 (MM)       Um – was it only wheat that you sowed?

excl
only adv grain sg n
interr clt
acc refl clt
sow 3sg impf I

86 (a) [3:31]      Well, wheat. Only grain (“zhito”); the wheat (“chenitsa”) that’s for autumn,

disc
grain sg n only adv
[…]
rye sg n wheat sg f which sg n interr adj
3sg pres cop clt
for
autumn sg n adj

87 (a) [3:33]      that can – that can endure the cold in the winter.

which sg n interr adj can 3sg pres
hes
can 3sg pres I
comp
endure 3sg pres I
in
cold sg m def in.winter adv

88 (MM)       Yes.

yes

89 (a) [3:38]      And we sow again in the spring.

in.spring adv again adv
acc refl clt
sow 3sg pres I

90 (MM)       Are “zhito” and “pshenitsa “ the same thing?

grain sg n
and
wheat sg f one sg n adj
and
same sg n adj
interr clt
3sg pres cop clt

91 (a) [3:40]      [Ah] no, [they] aren’t.

neg
3sg pres cop clt

92 (MM)       Which is “zhito” and which is –

which sg n interr adj
3sg pres cop clt
grain sg n def which sg n interr adj
3sg pres cop clt

93 (a) [3:42]      “Zhito” is what [you] call rye.

grain sg n def
acc refl clt
say 3sg pres I rye sg f

94 (MM)       Aha.

disc

95 (a) [3:44]      And “chenitsa” is something else.

and
wheat sg f def
3sg pres cop clt
other sg n adj

96 (MM)       So that means you use the term “zhito” for rye, is that right?

mean 3sg pres I
for
for
rye sg f def call 2pl pres I nom 2pl grain sg n thus adv
interr clt

97 (a) [3:49]      Yes, “zhito” is for rye, and “chenitsa” is wheat. [It’s] different.

disc
grain sg n def
3sg pres cop clt
for
rye sg f def
and
wheat sg f def
dat refl clt
3sg pres cop clt
wheat sg f apart adv

98 (MM)       Ah

bkch

99 (a) [3:55]      And there’s other seeds. Oats, barley – that gets sown in the spring.

apart adv pres exist seed sg n oats sg m barley sg m nom sg n
acc refl clt
sow 3sg pres I in.spring adv

100 (a) [4:01]      It’s not sown in the fall. When April comes

nom sg n
acc refl clt
[...]
in.autumn adv
neg
sow 3sg pres I come 3sg pres P
interr clt
April sg m

101 (a) [4:05]      they sow barley, they sow oats – and that can all be done

sow 3sg pres P
acc refl clt
barley sg m sow 3sg pres P
acc refl clt
oats sg n
and
nom sg n reach 3sg pres P

102 (a) [4:09]      with oxen. And then it’s all reaped together.

with
ox pl m
and
acc refl clt
reap 3sg pres I all sg n adj together adv

103 (MM)       That’s how it is.

thus adv

104 (a) [4:12]      That’s how it is.

thus adv

105 (MM)       OK. [Now] you say that at the mill …

fine adv
and
say 2sg pres I
at
mill sg f def

106 (a) [4:17]      Ah, ...

disc

107 (MM)       … [you mill flour for] dark [bread]

black sg m adj

108 (a) [4:18]      ... at the mill the emery stone revolves, a wheel this big.

at
mill sg f def emery sg m stone sg m
dat refl clt
acc refl clt
revolve 3sg pres I
ost
so.big sg n adj wheel sg n

109 (a) [4:22]      It’s made so the grains falls on it from above a little at a time,

nom sg n
dat refl clt
3sg pres cop clt
from.above adv make sg n P.part P
and
dat refl clt
fall 3sg pres I grain sg n def
by
little adv

110 (a) [4:28]      from here by the wheel. And the wheel puts out flour

from
here adv by wheel sg n def wheel sg n def
acc n 3sg clt
eject 3sg pres I
in
flour sg n

111 (MM)       Right.

thus adv

112 (a) [4:32]      And everything gets gathered in a basket, and put into sacks.

and
in
small.basket sg n there adv gather 3sg pres I
acc refl clt
put 3sg pres I
acc refl clt
in
sack m

113 (a) [4:35]      So we go out and sow and grind and knead …

and
drive 1pl pres I
and
sow 1pl pres I [ … ]
grind 1pl pres P knead 1pl pres I

114 (MM)       Yes, yes, yes, yes.

yes yes yes yes

115 (a) [4:40]      … black bread once a week. I bake it on Monday, and then again

black sg m adj bread sg m
by
one f sg adj week sg f bake 1sg pres P
acc m 3sg clt
on
Monday sg m
and
again adv

116 (a) [4:45]      on Monday – these dark loaves, that aren’t damp [?], that don’t get moldy

on
Monday sg m such pl adj loaf pl m black pl adj
but
pres neg exist [unknown] sg f
comp
catch 3sg pres P mold sg f

117 (a) [4:50]      and won’t dry out but rather [stay] soft and nice. And there it is.

fut neg
comp
dry 3sg pres P
but
soft sg n adj
and
nice sg n adj
and
disc
ost thus adv

118 (MM)       So did you all used to grind at home with some little stone

disc
exist impf
interr clt
nom 2pl
comp
grind 2pl pres I at.home adv such sg m adj one sg m adj small sg m adj stone sg m

119 (MM)       that you’d rotate around by hand?

comp
dat refl clt
acc m 3sg clt
turn 2sg pres I
on
[ … ]
on
hand sg f

120 (a) [4:58]      No. We didn’t [do] such things.

no
neg
1pl pres aux clt
in
such sg n adj

121 (c)       Yes

yes

122 (b) [5:02]      There's no bread – we’re sitting here in the shade, outdoors.

pres neg exist bread sg m nom 1pl sit 1pl pres I here adv
in
shade sg f
in
air sg m

123 (MM)       O.K.

thus adv

124 (a) [5:05]      That’s what these things are like.

such pl adj
3pl pres cop clt
this pl adj thing pl f

125 (MM)       And then when you bring the flour [home], where do you put it?

and
after adv when conj
acc n 3sg clt
bring 2sg pres P flour sg n def where interr
acc n 3sg clt
put.away 2sg pres I

126 (a) [5:10]      Well, it sits in the sacks. We put up a board on – near the wall

disc
sit 3sg pres I
dat refl clt
in
bag pl m put pl L.part P
1pl pres aux clt
board sg f
on
to
wall sg f def

127 (a) [5:14]      inside the house, and it sits in the bag. Then I sift it into the kneading trough

inside adv at.home adv sit 3sg pres I
dat refl clt
in
bag sg m def in
kneading.trough pl.t def
dat refl clt
sift 1sg pres P

128 (a) [5:18]      with a sieve, I knead [that part], and the rest sits there until I finish it all.

with
sieve sg n def knead 1sg pres I
dat refl clt
that sg n adj
dat refl clt
sit 3sg pres I until conj
acc n 3sg clt
knead 1sg pres P

129 (a) [5:21]      Where [else] am I going to put it? It sits in its sack.

where interr
fut
acc n 3sg clt
put 1sg pres P in
bag sg m def
dat refl clt
sit 3sg pres I

130 (c) [5:23]      You didn’t have a barn?

barn sg n impf neg exist
interr clt

131 (a) [5:24]      Ah, ha! [laughter]

excl

132 (MM)       O.K. So then you need to make the bread. Tell me now

thus adv
and
after adv must pres I imprs
comp
knead 1sg pres P bread sg m hort
comp
dat 1sg clt
say 2sg pres P

133 (MM)       the recipe for the bread that you used to make in the old days.

recipe sg f def
for
bread sg m def which sg m rel adj nom 2pl
2pl pres aux clt
make pl L.part I one sg n adj time sg n

134 (a) [5:31]      Well, we kneaded it. For example, if we made some up yesterday,

disc
knead 1pl aor I
acc n 3sg clt
nom 1pl
1pl pres aux clt
dat refl clt
knead pl L.part P
comp
say 1pl pres P yesterday adv
interr clt

135 (a) [5:36]      or we made it last Sunday, we'll have left aside this little round bit –

that sg f adj Sunday sg f
1pl pres aux clt
dat refl clt
knead pl L.part P leave pl L.part P
1pl pres aux clt
ost
so.big sg n adj roll sg n

136 (a) [5:41]      it’s called leavening.

leavening sg m
dat m 3sg clt
acc refl clt
say 3sg pres I

137 (MM)       Right.

thus adv

138 (a) [5:43]      And when it came time to knead [the next] bread we'd take

and
when conj come 3sg pres P time sg n
comp
knead 1pl pres I this sg m adj bread sg m
1pl pres aux clt
take pl L.part P

139 (a) [5:47]      the leavening and dissolve it in water. In the evening I sift the flour, make a hole

this sg m adj leavening sg m
acc refl clt
dip 3sg pres P in
water sg f evening sg f def sift 1sg pres P flour sg n def make 1pl pres P hole sg f

140 (a) [5:53]      in the flour in the kneading trough, pour in this leavening, knead it in, stir it,

in
kneading.trough pl.t def flour sg n def pour 1sg pres P this sg m adj leavening sg m knead 1sg pres P
acc n 3sg clt
stir 1sg pres P
acc n 3sg clt

141 (a) [5:57]      knead it. In the morning I get up [and] it has risen. Then I knead it into

knead 1sg pres P
acc n 3sg clt
morning adv arise 1sg pres P nom sg n rise sg n L.part P knead 1sg pres I
acc n 3sg clt
then adv

142 (a) [6:04]      ten or twelve loaves this size, and leave it in the kneading trough to finish rising.

about.ten sg f twelve loaf ct m such pl adj
ost
wait 1sg pres I
acc m 3sg clt
in
kneading.trough pl.t def
and
rise 3sg pres P

143 (a) [6:10]      Then we separate it out on the boards like it is now in the ovens,

after adv
acc m 3sg clt
separate 1pl pres P
on
board pl f how rel
3sg pres cop clt
now adv in
oven pl f def

144 (a) [6:13]      on boards for – with cloth, towels [over it],

on
board pl f
for
in
in
cloth sg m in
towel pl f

145 (b) [6:17]      [unintelligble]

146 (a) [6:17]      and we heat up the wood oven outside.

light 1pl pres P oven sg f def outside adv with
wood pl n

147 (MM)       Ah, your oven is outside?

excl
outside adv
dat 2sg clt
3sg pres cop clt
large.oven sg f

148 (a) [6:19]      The oven is built up [outside], we heat it with wood. It’s got these tiles,

disc
oven sg f
3sg pres cop clt
build sg n P.part P light 1pl pres P
acc f 3sg clt
with
wood pl n put pl P.part P
3pl pres cop clt
tile pl f such pl adj

149 (a) [6:25]      the kind that [you see] lined up along the road.

what.kind pl rel adj
3pl pres cop clt
now adv this pl adj
by
by
road pl m def where rel
acc 3pl clt
arrange 3pl pres I

150 (a) [6:31]      Such tiles are put there. So when [the oven] is heated, we sweep it out, and clean out

such pl adj tile pl f
3pl pres cop clt
put pl P.part P when conj
acc refl clt
heat 3sg pres P sweep 1pl pres P
acc f 3sg clt
clean 1pl pres P

151 (a) [6:36]      the ash and coals, and then we toss [the bread] in there with a shovel,

from
ash sg f
from
hes
coal pl m throw 1pl pres P
acc m 3sg clt
there adv with
[ … ]
with
one f adj shovel sg f

152 (a) [6:41]      and push it in there to bake. Then we take it out and eat it,

disc
and
push sg imv P
acc m 3sg clt
there adv nom m 3sg
acc refl clt
bake 3sg pres P extract 1pl pres I
and
eat 1pl pres I

153 (MM)       Ah

disc

154 (a) [6:45]      and that’s –

thus adv
acc refl clt

155 (MM)       So you used to do this once a week.

mean 3sg pres I one sg m adj time m in
week sg f def do 2pl impf I

156 (a) [6:48]      Well [yes], we made [it] just once a week, because we can’t

disc
one sg m adj time m in
[ … ]
1pl pres aux clt
knead pl L.part I because
neg
can 1pl pres I

157 (a) [6:53]      do it every day, you know, so [we make it] all at once.

every sg m adj day sg m
comp
knead 1pl pres I
by
so.much adv
disc
at.once adv

158 (MM)       And did you used to make bread without leavening, that is –

disc
knead 2pl impf I
interr clt
one sg m adj bread sg m
without
leavening sg m which sg m rel adj
3sg pres cop clt

159 (a) [6:57]      For unleavened [bread], we would use the flour from “chenitsa” wheat.

disc
without
leavening sg m knead 1pl impf I
from
this sg n adj flour sg n rel
3sg pres cop clt
wheat sg f def

160 (MM)       Aha.

bkch

161 (a) [7:03]      Without it (leavening), we’d make what we called “fresh quickbread”.

without
acc m 3sg
acc refl clt
knead 3sg impf I fresh sg f adj quickbread sg f
dat m 3sg clt
say 1pl impf I

162 (MM)       Right.

thus adv

163 (a) [7:07]      That’s done in a baking dish that we made out of ...

knead 3sg pres P
acc refl clt
bowl sg f
1pl pres aux clt
make pl L.part P from

164 (MM)       Ah, you didn’t bake that in the [outdoor] oven?

disc
nom m 3sg
neg
acc refl clt bake 3sg impf I
in
oven sg f def

165 (a) [7:10]      ... of clay. No, a single loaf of bread isn’t baked – it isn’t baked

from
clay sg f nom m 3sg
neg
acc refl clt
bake 3sg pres I one sg m adj bread sg m nom m 3sg
neg
acc refl clt
bake 3sg pres I

166 (a) [7:14]      in the [outdoor] oven. [For] one loaf, we heat the dish at the hearth ...

in
oven sg f one sg m adj bread sg m light 1pl pres P bowl sg f
at
hearth sg n def

167 (MM)       That [dish] is of clay, you said.

nom f 3sg
3sg pres cop clt
from
clay sg f call 2sg pres I

168 (a) [7:17]      ... in the house. Then we take it off the fire, put the quickbread

at.home adv
and
nom f 3sg remove 1pl pres P
acc f 3sg clt
from
fire sg m def put 1pl pres P quickbread sg f def

169 (a) [7:24]      in the dish, cover it with hot ash on top.

in
baking.dish sg f def cover 1pl pres P
acc f 3sg clt
with
ash sg f from.top adv hot sg f adj

170 (MM)       Yes –

yes

171 (a) [7:30]      It bakes up, then we take [it] out, wash [it], break [it], [laughter] eat [it]!

bake 3sg pres P
acc refl clt
extract 1pl pres P wash 1pl pres I break 1pl pres I eat 1pl pres I

172 (MM)       And what was the dish made of?

and
baking.dish sg f def
from
what sg n interr
acc refl clt
make 3sg pres I

173 (c) [7:34]      From clay. They call it clay here.

from
clay sg f nom 3pl
dat n 3sg clt
call 3pl pres I clay sg f here adv

174 (a) [7:35]      Well, the dish is made out of clay.

disc
baking.dish sg f def
acc refl clt
make 3sg pres I
from
clay sg f

175 (c) [7:36]      Clay, clay.

clay sg f clay sg f

176 (a) [7:37]      … [as] they call it, this red earthen clay.

dat m 3sg clt
say 3pl pres I such sg f adj
dat refl clt
earth sg f red sg f adj clay sg f

177 (MM)       Who makes them for you?

which sg m interr
dat 2pl clt
acc 3pl clt
make 3sg pres I

178 (a) [7:41]      Well, we beat [the clay] down, and make them and –

disc
nom 1pl
dat refl clt
acc f 3sg clt
beat 1pl pres P
and
make 1pl pres P
acc f 3sg clt
and

179 (MM)       Was there a [certain] day in the year on which the dishes were made?

exist impf
interr clt
day sg m
in
year sg f def in
which sg m rel adj
acc refl clt
make 3pl pres I bowl pl f

180 (a) [7:48]      No. Whoever needed one would make it [for himself].

no who sg m interr
to
who sg m interr when interr need impf imprs then adv
dat refl clt
acc f 3sg clt
make 3sg pres I

181 (MM)       Umhm

bkch

182 (a) [7:52]      It was like that with ovens too. Whoever [had] mud would make himself an oven.

thus adv 3sg impf cop
and
oven pl f def who sg m interr
[...]
mud sg f make sg m L.part P
dat refl clt
oven sg f

183 (a) [7:56]      And whoever didn’t, we made these dishes. I bake three or four [loaves]

who sg m interr neg
3sg pres cop clt
make pl L.part P
1pl pres aux clt
bowl pl f bake 1sg pres P
by
three
four

184 (a) [8:00]      in the dish; [they last] two or three days, then I bake again.

in
baking.dish sg f def
for
two m
three
day ct m
and
again adv bake 1sg pres I

185 (MM)       Hm

disc

186 (a) [8:03]      That’s how it was back then.

thus adv
3sg pres aux clt
be sg n L.part one.time adv

187 (MM)       Huh.

disc

188 (a) [8:06]      That’s the sort of things there were.

such pl adj
3pl pres cop clt
this pl adj thing pl f

189 (MM)       Yes. Yes.

yes
comp

190 (a) [8:07]      Stoyan – has the bread come?

interr come 3sg aor P bread sg m def Stoyan voc sg m name

         Wait a minute. Let’s see about the harvesting. How did you do that?


         Well, the harvest. We reap, we bundle [it up], we take and thresh


         with horses, with oxen, with whatever there is.


         So tell [it] to me, beginning from the harvest


         all up until the point when you take it off to the mill. How was that done?


         Well, we reap. So long as there’s harvest [going on], we reap.


         And then in the time up to St. Elias day – in the old days


         it was St. Elias day. That’s on the second [of August], right?


         Yes, that’s right.


         We have to finish threshing by then because afterwards it’s less hot


         and it’s very hard to thresh. So we finish the threshing and gather [it up] –


         Wait a minute. Didn’t you say – and where do you – when you –


         Some of you do the reaping, and what do the others do?


         Well, all of us reap until the harvest is [brought home] ...


         Right –


         ... into the villages.


         And who ties [off the sheaves]?


         Well, the landowner, my husband, my father-in-law – the men tie them off.


         We both reap and tie [off sheaves] all together.


         Right. And –


         All of us tie [them off] together.


         And after that, how do you gath-


         Then we carry the sheaves across ...


         And where [unintelligible]


         ... and pile them up into cruciforms.


         Where?


         Well, in the field.


         In the field.


         Then we catch the oxen, or whatever one has for that [purpose], and


         drive them into the threshing field. We put [the sheaves] in stacks


         and we begin to thresh.


         Right –


         We throw what we can off of the pile today, what we can tomorrow –


         And how was the threshing done in the old days?


         Well, we drive the oxen, if not oxen then horses.


         They go in a circle, we turn [the sheaves] and toss [the grain] around …


         But …


         … here


         … are they tied up [to something]? Are they tied up?


         In the yard – [yes, of course] the horses are tied


         to what we call the threshing pole, in the middle of the yard.


         Right


         Well, now, you’re already somewhat knowledgeable [about this]!


         Well, I’ve been asking about this in other places.


         [Now] I want to see what it’s like in your village.


         Mm


          That makes sense, right?


         I got the feeling that you’re making inquiries about this [stuff]!


         [laughter]


         And so. (We’re not going to go see when the bread [delivery will] come.)


         So when we gather up the straw, we toss it in the loft.


         [Then] there’s the winnowers. We start putting [things] on the winnower.


         One [of us] shovels up grain, another's up above. The winnower's got a basket,


         feeding into the winnower. We winnow out the grain – the chaff separately


         and the grain separately –and we store it away and that’s it. And after that –


         Where do you all store it? Where do you store it away?


         Well, wherever! In the loft, in the cellar, in the basement –


         it’s kept for the winter, for the animals to eat. [It’s] for the animals.


         And as for the grain, we spread it out on rugs [and]


         dry it. Then we load it into sacks, on the cart,


         and go off to the mill and grind it …


         Where –


          … into flour.


         Where is – where was the mill?


         Well, here along the rivers, on the water. There was a mill


         with a stone that they call an emery stone. We’d grind up the flour,


         and eat black bread. We wouldn’t eat white bread, like [they do] now.


         And what was sown around here?


         Well, there's a sieve!


         No, [I mean] what got planted here in the fields?


         Ah, in the fields. In the morning when I go to the field and check it out,


         I plow with the oxen until afternoon prayer. And then I put the grain


         into what they call a “shinik”. I put it under my arm


         and with [my other] hand, take [seed], walk along the rows, and throw it out …


         Right.


         ... to [the point where] they’ve made the furrow. I sow all of this one, and then


         we sow it further on, and rake it over, and go home.


         And the autumn [sowing] –


         But what did you sow [then]? Autumn wheat?


         [For] autumn wheat, we sow it, then plow. And the plough buries it.


         Mhm


         But summer [wheat] – we rake it with what’s called a harrow, with brushwood.


         Yes.


         And that’s how we worked.


         Um – was it only wheat that you sowed?


         Well, wheat. Only grain (“zhito”); the wheat (“chenitsa”) that’s for autumn,


         that can – that can endure the cold in the winter.


         Yes.


         And we sow again in the spring.


         Are “zhito” and “pshenitsa “ the same thing?


         [Ah] no, [they] aren’t.


         Which is “zhito” and which is –


         “Zhito” is what [you] call rye.


         Aha.


         And “chenitsa” is something else.


         So that means you use the term “zhito” for rye, is that right?


         Yes, “zhito” is for rye, and “chenitsa” is wheat. [It’s] different.


         Ah


         And there’s other seeds. Oats, barley – that gets sown in the spring.


         It’s not sown in the fall. When April comes


         they sow barley, they sow oats – and that can all be done


         with oxen. And then it’s all reaped together.


         That’s how it is.


         That’s how it is.


         OK. [Now] you say that at the mill …


         Ah, ...


         … [you mill flour for] dark [bread]


         ... at the mill the emery stone revolves, a wheel this big.


         It’s made so the grains falls on it from above a little at a time,


         from here by the wheel. And the wheel puts out flour


         Right.


         And everything gets gathered in a basket, and put into sacks.


         So we go out and sow and grind and knead …


         Yes, yes, yes, yes.


         … black bread once a week. I bake it on Monday, and then again


         on Monday – these dark loaves, that aren’t damp [?], that don’t get moldy


         and won’t dry out but rather [stay] soft and nice. And there it is.


         So did you all used to grind at home with some little stone


         that you’d rotate around by hand?


         No. We didn’t [do] such things.


         Yes


         There's no bread – we’re sitting here in the shade, outdoors.


         O.K.


         That’s what these things are like.


         And then when you bring the flour [home], where do you put it?


         Well, it sits in the sacks. We put up a board on – near the wall


         inside the house, and it sits in the bag. Then I sift it into the kneading trough


         with a sieve, I knead [that part], and the rest sits there until I finish it all.


         Where [else] am I going to put it? It sits in its sack.


         You didn’t have a barn?


         Ah, ha! [laughter]


         O.K. So then you need to make the bread. Tell me now


         the recipe for the bread that you used to make in the old days.


         Well, we kneaded it. For example, if we made some up yesterday,


         or we made it last Sunday, we'll have left aside this little round bit –


         it’s called leavening.


         Right.


         And when it came time to knead [the next] bread we'd take


         the leavening and dissolve it in water. In the evening I sift the flour, make a hole


         in the flour in the kneading trough, pour in this leavening, knead it in, stir it,


         knead it. In the morning I get up [and] it has risen. Then I knead it into


         ten or twelve loaves this size, and leave it in the kneading trough to finish rising.


         Then we separate it out on the boards like it is now in the ovens,


         on boards for – with cloth, towels [over it],


         [unintelligble]


         and we heat up the wood oven outside.


         Ah, your oven is outside?


         The oven is built up [outside], we heat it with wood. It’s got these tiles,


         the kind that [you see] lined up along the road.


         Such tiles are put there. So when [the oven] is heated, we sweep it out, and clean out


         the ash and coals, and then we toss [the bread] in there with a shovel,


         and push it in there to bake. Then we take it out and eat it,


         Ah


         and that’s –


         So you used to do this once a week.


         Well [yes], we made [it] just once a week, because we can’t


         do it every day, you know, so [we make it] all at once.


         And did you used to make bread without leavening, that is –


         For unleavened [bread], we would use the flour from “chenitsa” wheat.


         Aha.


         Without it (leavening), we’d make what we called “fresh quickbread”.


         Right.