1 (VZh) [Do you still thresh this way now?]
2 (b) [0:01] [Yes,] we use the threshing field now [too]. Now
|nom 1pl||now adv||dat refl clt||acc m 3sg clt||use 1pl pres I||threshing.field sg m def||disc||now adv|
3 (b) [0:03] when we go to the threshing field, we use it [the same way] now.
|to||threshing.field sg m||how interr||acc refl clt||go 3sg pres I||nom 1pl||and||now adv||dat refl clt||acc m 3sg clt||use 1pl pres I||this sg n adj|
4 (b) [0:04] And even now, when we reap what we've sown on [our] private land –
|and||now adv||dat refl clt||reap 1pl pres I||here adv||by||private sg m def adj||section sg m||dat refl clt||sow 1pl pres P|
5 (b) [0:07] barley, oats, and rye – we thresh it with horses. We spread the sheaves
|barley sg m||oats sg m||rye sg f||thresh 1pl pres I||acc m 3sg clt||with||horse pl m||thresh 1pl pres I||sheaf pl m def|
6 (b) [0:13] around on the ground, we rope up two horses – or three or four,
|around||earth sg f def||tie 1pl pres P||two m||horse ct m||or||three||or||four|
7 (b) [0:17] depending on how many sheaves we've spread out over the threshing floor.
|dependent adv||how.many interr||cruciform pl f||sheaf pl m||put 1pl pres P||to||to||threshing.field sg m def|
8 (b) [0:21] We gather together, women and men – three, four, five, six people,
|gather 1pl pres I||acc refl clt||
||and||woman pl f||and||man pl m||three||four||five||six||people pl|
9 (b) [0:24] and we thresh all day long. We finish the threshing, and we separate it,
|thresh 1pl pres I||entire sg m def adj||day sg m||thresh 1pl pres P||acc n 3sg clt||separate 1pl pres P|
10 (b) [0:27] the straw is on one side, and we gather the grain up into a single stack.
|straw sg f def||to.side adv||grain sg n def||acc n 3sg clt||gather 1pl pres P||in||one f sg adj||stack sg f|
11 (b) [0:30] After that, we winnow it with a shovel. You toss the grain up in the air,
|winnow 1pl pres I||acc n 3sg clt||after adv||with||shovel sg f||and||acc refl clt||winnow 3sg pres I||grain sg n def|
12 (b) [0:33] and the wheat falls to the si- in one area, because it's heavier. And the chaff
||to||one sg n adj||place sg n||fall 3sg pres I||grain sg n def||because||3sg pres cop clt||heavy sg n adj||and||chaff sg f def|
13 (b) [0:36] flies away, [because] the wind is blowing from the side. And that's [how]
|run 3sg pres I||blow 3sg pres I||wind sg m def||to.side adv||and||thus adv||acc n 3sg clt||winnow 1pl pres P|
14 (b) [0:39] it's winnowed. We thresh it, and winnow it, and put it into sacks,
|thresh 1pl pres P||acc n 3sg clt||winnow 1pl pres P||put 1pl pres P||in||sack pl m def|
15 (b) [0:41] and then we grind it. In the old days we ate it as bread,
|after adv||grind 1pl pres I||at||time sg n def||acc n 3sg clt||eat 1pl impf||for||bread sg m|
16 (b) [0:44] but now we feed it to the livestock, as fodder.
|hes||now adv||acc n 3sg clt||give 1pl pres I||to||livestock sg f def||for||fodder sg f|
17 (VZh) [What do you make bread from?]
18 (b) [0:47] [Now] we buy bread ready-made from the [large bakery] ovens. But earlier,
|bread sg m||from||oven sg f def||ready sg m adj||dat refl clt||buy 1pl pres I||more||early adv|
19 (b) [0:49] we used to grind this grain at the mill. We would grind [it], and the women would sift [it],
|this sg n adj||grain sg n def||grind 1pl impf I||at||mill pl f||grind 1pl impf I||and||sift 3pl impf I||woman pl f def|
20 (b) [0:52] they would make bread and we'd eat [it].
|knead 3pl impf I||bread sg m||and||eat 1pl pres I|
21 (VZh) [What did you use to thresh with?]
22 (b) [0:57] When people here didn't have horses for threshing – [of course,]
|when rel||people pl def||here adv||instead||comp||pres exist||horse pl m||comp||acc refl clt||thresh 3sg pres I|
23 (b) [0:59] with horses, it's easier because horses run and break things up –
|with||horse pl m||because||horse pl m def||run 3pl pres I||and||acc n 3sg clt||break 3pl pres I||more||easy sg n adj||3sg pres cop clt|
24 (b) [1:02] but when people do the threshing with cows or with oxen,
|and||when rel||acc refl clt||thresh 3pl pres I||people pl def||with||cow pl f||or||with||ox m pl|
25 (b) [1:06] they harness the oxen into a yoke, or if it's cows they harness them
|ox pl m def||acc refl clt||harness 3pl pres P||in||yoke sg m||or||rather adv||cow pl f def||acc 3pl clt||harness 3pl pres P|
26 (b) [1:09] into a yoke and in back there's this thing like – like – a harrow.
|in||yoke sg m||and||in.back adv||to||disc||make sg n P.part P||as||as||harrow sg f|
27 (b) [1:13] And underneath there are these planks nailed to it, boards, and below
|and||below||with||plank pl f||nail 3sg pres P||acc refl clt||plank pl f||board pl f||and||below|
28 (b) [1:16] on the boards you hammer on ox shoes. And then because the oxen
|to||board pl f def||acc refl clt||hammer 3pl pres P||oxen pl f adj||plate pl f||and||when conj||ox pl m def||because|
29 (b) [1:20] walk slowly, they break it up as much as they can.
|walk 3pl pres I||slowly adv||nom 3pl||acc n 3sg clt||how.much rel||can pres imprs||comp||acc n 3sg clt||break 3pl pres I||break 3pl pres I||acc n 3sg clt|
30 (b) [1:24] But [then] the harrow behind, with these horse ( = ox) shoes,
|however||harrow sg f def||from.back adv||with||this pl adj||horse pl f adj||plate pl f|
31 (b) [1:26] gets pulled along through the straw on the threshing field
|as conj||acc refl clt||drag 3sg pres I||through||straw sg f def||along||threshing.field sg m def|
32 (b) [1:27] as [the oxen] go round, and the [ox] shoes cut the straw up into tiny pieces,
|when conj||revolve 3pl pres I||and||plate pl f def||cut 3pl pres I||straw sg f def||more||to||small adv|
33 (b) [1:30] [so that it's] faster to do the threshing [that way].
|more||fast adv||comp||acc refl clt||thresh 3sg pres I|