1 (VZh) [What did you do as a shepherd?]
2 (a) [0:03] I worked as a shepherd. I used to graze the sheep, and we raised nice lambs.
|disc||as||shepherd sg m||work 1sg aor I||pasture 1sg impf I||sheep pl f def||and||produce 1pl impf I||nice pl adj||lamb pl n|
3 (a) [0:07] We cared for the animals well, and gave the "products" to the firm, to the ah-
|look 1pl impf I||nicely adv||animal pl f def||and||give 1pl impf I||production sg n||to||to||firm sg n def||to||disc|
4 (a) [0:14] agrarian complex, the collective farm, in principle. Even as a private [owner]
|A.P.K. sg n def||to||T.K.Z.S. sg n def||basically adv||but||and||as||private.owner sg m||disc|
5 (a) [0:18] I was a shepherd also. After that – when I got married I became a farmer.
|rather adv||dat refl clt||1sg impf cop||shepherd sg m||after||this sg n med adj||when conj||acc refl clt||marry 1sg aor P||become 1sg aor P||land.tiller sg m|
6 (a) [0:26] That is, I began to work in agriculture; we worked [at that] a certain time.
|mean 3sg pres I||agriculture sg n||begin 1sg aor P||comp||work 1sg pres I||and||work 1pl aor I||to||one sg n adj||specific sg n adj||time sg n|
7 (a) [0:32] After that, in ’49 [when] we formed the collective farm, and entered into
|after||this sg n med adj||during||forty||and||ninth sg f adj||year sg f||form 1pl aor I||T.K.Z.S. sg n def||enter 1pl aor P||in|
8 (a) [0:36] the collective farm, we began to work there collectively and I worked there
|T.K.Z.S. sg n def||and||begin 1pl aor P||comp||work 1pl pres I||as.collective adv||there adv||and||in||acc n 3sg||work 1sg aor I|
9 (a) [0:47] as a supervisor the first years. After that I was the chair of the collective farm.
|as||supervisor sg m||first pl def adj||year pl f||after||this sg n med adj||and||chairman sg m||of||T.K.Z.S. sg n def||1sg impf cop|
10 (a) [0:54] During the first years in the collective we encountered great difficulties,
|in||T.K.Z.S. sg n def||then adv||first pl def adj||year pl f||meet 1pl impf I||big pl adj||difficulty pl f|
11 (a) [1:00] [as] at that time a working day was paid very poorly.
|interr||then adv||3sg impf cop||poorly adv||pay sg m P.part P||work sg m def adj||day sg m|
12 (VZh) [Tell me about sheepherding and such things.]
13 (a) [1:04] Generally we – you start out with sheep in the morning: we’ll get up,
|basically adv||nom 1pl||sheep pl f def||when conj||acc 3pl clt||begin 2sg pres P||morning adv||fut||arise 1pl pres P|
14 (a) [1:08] We’ll – we’ll feed them, we’ll feed them,
|fut||acc 3pl clt||fut||acc 3pl clt||feed 1pl pres P||fut||acc 3pl clt||[...]||fut||acc 3pl clt||feed 1pl pres P|
15 (a) [1:12] we’ll take the lambs off separately, we’ll give food to the mothers,
|fut||separate 1pl pres P||lamb pl n def||separately adv||fut||give 1pl pres P||to||mother pl f def||comp||eat 3pl pres I|
16 (a) [1:15] a little at the beginning, and then we gave [food] to the lambs.
|by||little adv||beginning sg n||after||this sg n med adj||to||lamb pl n def||again adv||give 1pl impf I|
17 (a) [1:20] And [then] we let them out to graze. Here the animals were mostly kept
|and||acc 3pl clt||release 1pl impf I||to||pasture sg f||mostly adv||here adv||acc refl clt||acc refl clt||keep 3pl pres I||keep 3pl impf I||animal pl f def|
18 (a) [1:27] out in the pasture. There were three of us workers. One stayed with the lambs,
|in||in||pasture sg f||and||1pl impf cop||three an.num||people pl||worker pl m||one sg m def adj||remain 3sg impf I||by||lamb pl n def|
19 (a) [1:32] another drove one herd of sheep – we separated the sheep into two herds –
|other sg m def adj||remain 3sg impf I||collect 3sg impf I||one sg f def adj||herd sg f||sheep pl f||in||two f||herd pl f||acc 3pl clt||separate 1pl impf I|
20 (a) [1:36] and the other, the other herd. One was cleaning out the sheep pen there
|other sg m def adj||other sg f def adj||herd sg f||one sg n adj||clean 3sg impf I||pen sg f def||there adv|
21 (a) [1:41] feeding the lambs. At noon he'd take them to [where] we milk [the sheep].
|feed 3sg impf I||lamb pl n def||at.noon adv||3sg fut.pst||comp||acc 3pl clt||take 3sg pres P||comp||acc 3pl clt||and||milk 1pl pres I|
22 (a) [1:46] We milked them, and took the milk on donkeys to the village, to the collection point
|milk 1pl impf I||acc 3pl clt||transport 1pl impf I||milk sg n def||with||donkey pl n||in||village sg n||to||point sg m def|
23 (a) [1:52] that was [located] in the village. And so went the whole season
|where rel||3sg impf cop||in||village sg n def||and||thus med adv||go.on 3sg impf I||
||entire sg m def adj||season sg m|
24 (a) [1:59] of work in animal husbandry.
|of||work sg f||in||animal.husbandry sg n|
25 (VZh) [What other animals did you care for?]
26 (a) [2:04] I didn’t look after any other animals in herds like that.
|disc||other pl adj||animal pl f||thus med adv||herd pl f||neg||1sg pres aux clt||look sg m L.part I|
27 (b) [2:07] Cows.
|cow pl f|
28 (a) [2:07] I tend cows. We cowherds – there was a separate [group] of cowherds
|cow pl f def||look 1sg pres I||nom 1pl||cowherd pl m def||dat refl clt||impf exist||separately adv||cowherd pl m|
29 (a) [2:11] who were busy at the cow farm – and they, you know,
|who pl rel adj||acc refl clt||occupy 3pl impf I||with||cow.farm sg f def||and||nom 3pl||there adv||interr|
30 (a) [2:17] took the calves from [their mothers] and fed them. One – that is one –
|separate 3pl impf I||calf pl n def||feed 3pl impf I||acc 3pl clt||disc||one sg m def adj||one sg m def adj||comp||say 3sg pres P|
31 (a) [2:24] went with the cows, and the other stayed with the calves [and] fed them.
|go 3sg impf I||with||cow pl f def||and||other sg m def adj||remain 3sg impf I||by||calf pl n def||feed 3pl impf I||acc 3pl clt|
32 (VZh) [What sorts of occupations were there in the village?]
33 (a) [2:29] Well, the occupations in the villages are these: either in animal husbandry
|disc||nom 3pl||craft pl m def||in||village sg n def||3pl pres cop clt||acc 3pl||either||in||animal.husbandry sg n def|
34 (a) [2:33] – you’re a shepherd – or you’re in field labor, a land worker
|fut||2sg pres cop clt||shepherd sg m||either||fut||2sg pres cop clt||in||agronomy sg n def||land.worker sg m|
35 (a) [2:37] as we say in our [speech]. For example they plow, they reap,
|rel||dat n 3sg clt||say 1pl pres I||nom 1pl||by.our.way adv||plow 3pl pres I||comp||say 1pl pres P||reap 3pl pres I|
36 (a) [2:41] they transport sheaves, they thresh them at the threshing machine,
|drive 3pl pres I||sheaf pl m def||to||thresher sg f def||acc m 3sg clt||thresh 3sg impf I||and|
37 (a) [2:45] and that’s how work progressed in field agriculture.
|disc||thus med adv||go.on 3sg impf I||work sg f def||in||agronomy sg n|
38 (VZh) [Were there water buffaloes?]
39 (a) [2:49] There were very few. In principle there were many water buffaloes,
|impf exist||completely adv||little adv||generally adv||impf exist||water.buffalo m coll||many adv|
40 (a) [2:53] Before the collective farm was formed, when we were private [landowners],
|before||comp||acc refl clt||form 3sg pres I||T.K.Z.S. sg n def||while conj||1pl impf cop||private pl adj|
41 (a) [2:56] there were water buffaloes, horses, cows, there were these –
|water.buffalo pl m coll||impf exist||horse pl m||impf exist||cow pl f||impf exist||such pl med adj|
42 (a) [2:59] at that time there were many water buffaloes. There were cows –
|then adv||impf exist||water.buffalo pl m||many adv||cow pl f||exist impf|
43 (b) [3:04] There were horses.
|horse pl m||impf exist|
44 (a) [3:05] There were horses, there were pigs in small herds, these small herds –
|horse pl m||impf exist||pig pl f||impf exist||moreover adv||thus med adv||by||small.herd pl f||small.herd pl f||rel||impf exist|
45 (a) [3:11] private herds as we call them, there were livestock.
|private pl adj||small.herd pl f||impf exist||dat n 3sg clt||call 1pl pres I||nom 1pl||impf exist||livestock sg m|
46 (VZh) How did you call those?
|how interr||dat 3pl clt||call 2pl impf I||nom 2pl|
47 (a) [3:16] “Suriye” (herds)
|herd pl f|
48 (VZh) Ah, for [a group of] many –
|disc||for||many.of adv||thus sg n adj|
49 (a) [3:18] When there are many, a group of animals, we call that pi-
|for||many.of adv||group sg f def||animal pl f||dat n 3sg clt||call 1pl pres I||dat n 3sg clt||say 1pl pres I||
50 (VZh) Pigs.
|pig pl f|
51 (a) [3:22] Pigs, yes. And there were a lot of animals. However after that
|pig pl f||yes||and||impf exist||animal pl n||many adv||however adv||after||this sg n med adj|
52 (a) [3:28] people fell into poverty, they disappeared, they died out, as they say,
|and||people pl def||decay 3pl aor P||be.absent 3pl aor P||die.out 3pl aor P||rel||pres exist||one f adj||word sg f|
53 (a) [3:33] and the animals, they too –
|and||and||animal pl f def||and||nom 3pl||dat refl clt|
54 (VZh) [And did people play musical instruments?]
55 (a) [3:34] Well, we did play [instruments], these small pipes and end-blown flutes.
|excl||dat 1sg clt||thus adv||with||whistle pl f||and||with||flute pl m||play 1pl impf I|
56 (a) [3:38] That is, the shepherds played [them]. But that’s not some kind of,
|play 3pl impf I||comp||say 1pl pres P||shepherd pl m def||but||this sg n med adj||3sg pres cop clt||neg||3sg pres cop clt||some sg f adj|
57 (a) [3:42] like you might say, performing in some kind of orchestra, but [rather]
|thus med adv||comp||acc refl clt||say 3sg pres P||how rel||some.kind sg m adj||orchestra sg m||comp||perform 3pl pres P||but|
58 (a) [3:47] [a shepherd] walks along, chirps after his sheep to amuse himself.
|thus med adv||walk 3sg pres I||and||dat refl clt||chirp 3sg pres I||after||sheep pl f def||comp||acc refl clt||amuse 3sg pres I|
59 (a) [3:50] We were all such musicians, with small pipes and end-blown flutes.
|such pl med adj||
||musician pl m||1pl pres aux clt||be pl L.part||nom 1pl||with||whistle pl f||flute pl m|
60 (a) [3:54] Some had bagpipes, and played them; bagpipe players [were] in the interior,
|and||bagpipe pl f||impf exist||to||some pl adj||and||play.music 3pl impf I||interior sg f def||bagpiper pl m|
61 (a) [3:59] because when I went to Granichar, there were boys there
|because conj||nom 1sg||and||towards||Granichar||go 1sg aor I||to||there adv||there adv||impf exist||boy pl n|
62 (a) [4:02] playing bagpipes. No, not the [simple] bagpipe but the bagpipe with –
|who pl rel adj||play 3pl impf I||bagpipe pl f||neg||3sg pres cop clt||bagpipe sg f||bagpipe sg f||with|
63 (b) [4:05] End-blown flutes, end-blown flutes. A bagpipe is one thing, an end-blown flute –
|flute pl m||and||flute pl m||and||[...]||bagpipe sg f def||apart adv||and||flute sg m def|
64 (a) [4:08] Yes indeed. A bagpipe is one thing and an end-blown flute is another.
|disc||yes||disc||bagpipe sg f def||apart adv||and||flute sg m def||apart adv|
65 (VZh) [How do you make sheepfolds?]
66 (a) [4:11] We make the [sheepfo]lds from wood. Sticks pounded [into the ground] and after the sti–
||acc f 3sg clt||make 1pl pres I||from||wood pl n def||pound pl P.part P||stick pl m||and||after||
67 (a) [4:17] it’s covered with rye straw, and inside we make dividers so we can –
|this sg n med adj||cover sg f P.part P||with||rye.straw sg f||and||inside adv||make pl L.part I||divider pl f||for||comp||can 1pl pres I||comp|
68 (a) [4:23] to separate the sheep out. The ones who’ve had lambs in one place,
|comp||3pl pres cop clt||distribute pl P.part P||sheep pl f def||
||separately adv||which pl rel adj||3pl pres cop clt||bear.lamb pl def P.part P||apart adv|
69 (a) [4:29] the ones who haven’t, in another; and yet another for feeding the lambs.
|and||not.bear.lamb pl def P.part P||apart adv||and||for||feed def vbl.n I||of||lamb pl n def||and||apart adv|
70 (VZh) [And what do you make the sheepfolds out of?]
71 (a) [4:34] [We ma]ke [it] from lumber. It’s made from lumber, with –
||from||wooden sg m adj||material sg m||wooden sg m adj||material sg m||acc refl clt||make 3sg pres I||with|
72 (b) [4:37] Poles.
|stick pl m|
73 (a) [4:38] – poles.
|stick pl m|
74 (VZh) Uh huh.
75 (a) [4:40] Sheepfolds were made back then – they'd choose according to the old custom.
|this pl med adj||sheepfold pl f||acc refl clt||make 3pl impf I||then adv||acc refl clt||choose 3pl impf I||in.old.way adv|
76 (a) [4:43] Especially back then, they would choose them to be in places
|one sg n adj||time sg n||especially adv||then adv||acc 3pl clt||choose 3pl impf I||in||such pl med adj||place pl n|
77 (a) [4:47] that were warm, that were such, that faced – as a shelter
|which pl rel adj||3pl pres cop clt||warm pl adj||which pl rel adj||3pl pres cop clt||thus adv||come 3pl pres I||to||for||shelter sg m|
78 (a) [4:51] from the wind, such that the wind wouldn’t get in. They built them
|from||wind pl m def||comp||neg||acc 3pl clt||catch 3pl pres I||wind pl m def||and||sheepfold pl f def||acc refl clt||make 3pl impf I|
79 (a) [4:56] in a primitive manner. They were primitive, not like now, so to speak,
|primitive pl adj||again adv||primitive pl adj||3pl pres cop clt||neg||3pl pres cop clt||as||now adv||comp||say 1pl pres P|
80 (a) [4:59] as they make them, but primitive. There’ll be in one sheepfold, let’s say,
|rel||acc 3pl clt||make 3pl pres I||this sg n adj||primitive pl adj||3pl pres cop clt||one f adj||sheepfold sg f||fut||pres exist||comp||say 1pl pres P|
81 (a) [5:04] [space] to get in forty or fifty of today’s sheep. But back then you got in
|for||comp||get.in 2sg pres P||forty||fifty||sheep pl f||today's pl adj||hes||rather adv||then adv||get.in 3sg impf I|
82 (a) [5:11] – forty or fifty goats went in, while the sheep lay down outside
|forty||fifty||goat pl f||enter 3pl impf I||hes||sheep pl f def||dat refl clt||lie 3pl impf I||outside adv|
83 (a) [5:14] in – in the snow, in the rain – “au naturel”.
|in||in||snow sg m def||in||rain sg m def||in||nature sg f def|
84 (VZh) [What do you call it when it rains and snows both?]
85 (a) [5:17] So when it snows or rains we call that sleet.
|therefore adv||snow sg m||and||rain m||when rel||precipitate 3sg pres I||dat n 3sg clt||call 1pl pres I||sleet sg f||nom 1pl|
86 (a) [5:20] [When] it snows or rains, let’s say heavy precipitation,
|snow sg m||and||rain m||precipitate 3sg pres I||comp||say 1pl pres P||strong pl adj||precipitation pl m|
87 (a) [5:24] cold weather like that, we call that sleet because it “sleets”.
|such sg n med adj||cold sg n adj||weather sg n def||and||dat n 3sg clt||call 1pl pres I||sleet sg f||because||sleet 3sg pres I|
88 (VZh) [Did you take the sheep out when it snowed?]
89 (a) [5:27] If there’s not much snow we kept walking, and made the sheep
|if conj||3sg pres cop clt||little sg m adj||snow sg m def||go 1pl impf I||go 1pl impf I||and||acc 3pl clt||drive 1pl impf I||sheep pl f def||comp|
90 (a) [5:31] root [for food], because otherwise – there wasn’t any grain
|comp||root 3pl pres I||because conj||otherwise adv||impf neg exist||acc n 3sg clt||this sg n med adj||grain sg n|
91 (a) [5:34] like they make now for animals – fodder modder and various such things –
|as||now adv||prepare 3pl pres P||for||animal pl f def||fodder pl m||“modder” pl m||there adv||various pl adj||thing pl f|
92 (a) [5:37] back then animals had to subsist on very little. We make piles of leaves
|disc||then adv||3pl pres cop clt||to||to||maintenance sg f||animal pl f def||completely adv||little adv||make 1pl pres I||one pl adj||leafage pl m|
93 (a) [5:42] they would make leaf-fodder for some of them, but in very small quantities.
|leafage sg m adj||fodder sg m||for||some pl adj||make 3pl impf I||and||nom sg n||in||small sg n adj||quantity sg n|
94 (a) [5:46] Mostly they went hungry, out in “nature”. And we fed them young shoots –
|mostly adv||3sg impf cop||hunger sg m||and||mostly adv||in||nature sg f def||and||feed.shoots 1pl impf I|
95 (a) [5:50] In the old days they fed them shoots. At that time
|one sg n adj||time sg n||3pl pres aux clt||acc 3pl clt||feed.shoots pl L.part I||and||many adv||in||this sg n med adj||time sg n|
96 (a) [5:52] the forests weren– [cough] weren’t so heavily, [let’s say], regulated.
|forest pl f def||neg||neg||3pl pres aux clt||be pl L.part||so.much med adv||under||control sg m|
97 (a) [5:57] And when snow comes, well – they begin – a whole swath [of trees]
|when conj||catch 3sg pres P||snow sg m||ost||begin 3pl pres I||entire sg f adj||track sg f||here adv|
98 (a) [6:02] begins to be cut down, and they would feed the sheep the offshoots
|fut||acc refl clt||begin 3sg pres P||cut 3pl pres I||and||sheep pl f def||acc 3pl clt||feed.shoots 3pl impf I||with||offshoot sg m|
99 (a) [6:07] from the forest, like now, you might say.
|from||forest sg f def||as||now adv||comp||say 1pl pres P|