Brŭšljan 1

1 (VZh)       [What did you do as a shepherd?]

2 (a) [0:03]      I worked as a shepherd. I used to graze the sheep, and we raised nice lambs.

disc
as shepherd sg m work 1sg aor I pasture 1sg impf I sheep pl f def
and
produce 1pl impf I nice pl adj lamb pl n

3 (a) [0:07]      We cared for the animals well, and gave the "products" to the firm, to the ah-

look 1pl impf I nicely adv animal pl f def
and
give 1pl impf I production sg n
to
to
firm sg n def
to
disc

4 (a) [0:14]      agrarian complex, the collective farm, in principle. Even as a private [owner]

A.P.K. sg n def
to
T.K.Z.S. sg n def basically adv but
and
as private.owner sg m
disc

5 (a) [0:18]      I was a shepherd also. After that – when I got married I became a farmer.

rather adv
dat refl clt
1sg impf cop
shepherd sg m after this sg n med adj when conj
acc refl clt
marry 1sg aor P become 1sg aor P land.tiller sg m

6 (a) [0:26]      That is, I began to work in agriculture; we worked [at that] a certain time.

mean 3sg pres I agriculture sg n begin 1sg aor P
comp
work 1sg pres I
and
work 1pl aor I
to
one sg n adj specific sg n adj time sg n

7 (a) [0:32]      After that, in ’49 [when] we formed the collective farm, and entered into

after this sg n med adj during forty
and
ninth sg f adj year sg f form 1pl aor I T.K.Z.S. sg n def enter 1pl aor P in

8 (a) [0:36]      the collective farm, we began to work there collectively and I worked there

T.K.Z.S. sg n def
and
begin 1pl aor P
comp
work 1pl pres I as.collective adv there adv
and
in
acc n 3sg work 1sg aor I

9 (a) [0:47]      as a supervisor the first years. After that I was the chair of the collective farm.

as supervisor sg m first pl def adj year pl f after this sg n med adj
and
chairman sg m
of
T.K.Z.S. sg n def 1sg impf cop

10 (a) [0:54]      During the first years in the collective we encountered great difficulties,

in
T.K.Z.S. sg n def then adv first pl def adj year pl f meet 1pl impf I big pl adj difficulty pl f

11 (a) [1:00]      [as] at that time a working day was paid very poorly.

interr then adv 3sg impf cop poorly adv pay sg m P.part P work sg m def adj day sg m

12 (VZh)       [Tell me about sheepherding and such things.]

13 (a) [1:04]      Generally we – you start out with sheep in the morning: we’ll get up,

basically adv nom 1pl sheep pl f def when conj
acc 3pl clt
begin 2sg pres P morning adv fut arise 1pl pres P

14 (a) [1:08]      We’ll – we’ll feed them, we’ll feed them,

fut
acc 3pl clt
fut
acc 3pl clt
feed 1pl pres P fut
acc 3pl clt
[...]
fut
acc 3pl clt
feed 1pl pres P

15 (a) [1:12]      we’ll take the lambs off separately, we’ll give food to the mothers,

fut separate 1pl pres P lamb pl n def separately adv fut give 1pl pres P
to
mother pl f def
comp
eat 3pl pres I

16 (a) [1:15]      a little at the beginning, and then we gave [food] to the lambs.

by
little adv beginning sg n after this sg n med adj
to
lamb pl n def again adv give 1pl impf I

17 (a) [1:20]      And [then] we let them out to graze. Here the animals were mostly kept

and
acc 3pl clt
release 1pl impf I
to
pasture sg f mostly adv here adv
acc refl clt
acc refl clt
keep 3pl pres I keep 3pl impf I animal pl f def

18 (a) [1:27]      out in the pasture. There were three of us workers. One stayed with the lambs,

in
in
pasture sg f
and
1pl impf cop three an.num people pl worker pl m one sg m def adj remain 3sg impf I
by
lamb pl n def

19 (a) [1:32]      another drove one herd of sheep – we separated the sheep into two herds –

other sg m def adj remain 3sg impf I collect 3sg impf I one sg f def adj herd sg f sheep pl f
in
two f herd pl f
acc 3pl clt
separate 1pl impf I

20 (a) [1:36]      and the other, the other herd. One was cleaning out the sheep pen there

other sg m def adj other sg f def adj herd sg f one sg n adj clean 3sg impf I pen sg f def there adv

21 (a) [1:41]      feeding the lambs. At noon he'd take them to [where] we milk [the sheep].

feed 3sg impf I lamb pl n def at.noon adv 3sg fut.pst
comp
acc 3pl clt
take 3sg pres P
comp
acc 3pl clt
and
milk 1pl pres I

22 (a) [1:46]      We milked them, and took the milk on donkeys to the village, to the collection point

milk 1pl impf I
acc 3pl clt
transport 1pl impf I milk sg n def with
donkey pl n in
village sg n
to
point sg m def

23 (a) [1:52]      that was [located] in the village. And so went the whole season

where rel 3sg impf cop in
village sg n def
and
thus med adv go.on 3sg impf I
[...]
entire sg m def adj season sg m

24 (a) [1:59]      of work in animal husbandry.

of
work sg f in
animal.husbandry sg n

25 (VZh)       [What other animals did you care for?]

26 (a) [2:04]      I didn’t look after any other animals in herds like that.

disc
other pl adj animal pl f thus med adv herd pl f neg 1sg pres aux clt look sg m L.part I

27 (b) [2:07]      Cows.

cow pl f

28 (a) [2:07]      I tend cows. We cowherds – there was a separate [group] of cowherds

cow pl f def look 1sg pres I nom 1pl cowherd pl m def
dat refl clt
impf exist separately adv cowherd pl m

29 (a) [2:11]      who were busy at the cow farm – and they, you know,

who pl rel adj
acc refl clt
occupy 3pl impf I with
cow.farm sg f def
and
nom 3pl there adv interr

30 (a) [2:17]      took the calves from [their mothers] and fed them. One – that is one –

separate 3pl impf I calf pl n def feed 3pl impf I
acc 3pl clt
disc
one sg m def adj one sg m def adj
comp
say 3sg pres P

31 (a) [2:24]      went with the cows, and the other stayed with the calves [and] fed them.

go 3sg impf I with
cow pl f def
and
other sg m def adj remain 3sg impf I
by
calf pl n def feed 3pl impf I
acc 3pl clt

32 (VZh)       [What sorts of occupations were there in the village?]

33 (a) [2:29]      Well, the occupations in the villages are these: either in animal husbandry

disc
nom 3pl craft pl m def in
village sg n def
3pl pres cop clt
acc 3pl either in
animal.husbandry sg n def

34 (a) [2:33]      – you’re a shepherd – or you’re in field labor, a land worker

fut 2sg pres cop clt shepherd sg m either fut 2sg pres cop clt in
agronomy sg n def land.worker sg m

35 (a) [2:37]      as we say in our [speech]. For example they plow, they reap,

rel
dat n 3sg clt
say 1pl pres I nom 1pl by.our.way adv plow 3pl pres I
comp
say 1pl pres P reap 3pl pres I

36 (a) [2:41]      they transport sheaves, they thresh them at the threshing machine,

drive 3pl pres I sheaf pl m def
to
thresher sg f def
acc m 3sg clt
thresh 3sg impf I
and

37 (a) [2:45]      and that’s how work progressed in field agriculture.

disc
thus med adv go.on 3sg impf I work sg f def in
agronomy sg n

38 (VZh)       [Were there water buffaloes?]

39 (a) [2:49]      There were very few. In principle there were many water buffaloes,

impf exist completely adv little adv generally adv impf exist water.buffalo m coll many adv

40 (a) [2:53]      Before the collective farm was formed, when we were private [landowners],

before
comp
acc refl clt
form 3sg pres I T.K.Z.S. sg n def while conj 1pl impf cop private pl adj

41 (a) [2:56]      there were water buffaloes, horses, cows, there were these –

water.buffalo pl m coll impf exist horse pl m impf exist cow pl f impf exist such pl med adj

42 (a) [2:59]      at that time there were many water buffaloes. There were cows –

then adv impf exist water.buffalo pl m many adv cow pl f exist impf

43 (b) [3:04]      There were horses.

horse pl m impf exist

44 (a) [3:05]      There were horses, there were pigs in small herds, these small herds –

horse pl m impf exist pig pl f impf exist moreover adv thus med adv
by
small.herd pl f small.herd pl f rel impf exist

45 (a) [3:11]      private herds as we call them, there were livestock.

private pl adj small.herd pl f impf exist
dat n 3sg clt
call 1pl pres I nom 1pl impf exist livestock sg m

46 (VZh)       How did you call those?

how interr
dat 3pl clt
call 2pl impf I nom 2pl

47 (a) [3:16]      “Suriye” (herds)

herd pl f

48 (VZh)       Ah, for [a group of] many –

disc
for
many.of adv thus sg n adj

49 (a) [3:18]      When there are many, a group of animals, we call that pi-

for
many.of adv group sg f def animal pl f
dat n 3sg clt
call 1pl pres I
dat n 3sg clt
say 1pl pres I [...]

50 (VZh)       Pigs.

pig pl f

51 (a) [3:22]      Pigs, yes. And there were a lot of animals. However after that

pig pl f
yes
and
impf exist animal pl n many adv however adv after this sg n med adj

52 (a) [3:28]      people fell into poverty, they disappeared, they died out, as they say,

and
people pl def decay 3pl aor P be.absent 3pl aor P die.out 3pl aor P rel pres exist one f adj word sg f

53 (a) [3:33]      and the animals, they too –

and
and
animal pl f def
and
nom 3pl
dat refl clt

54 (VZh)       [And did people play musical instruments?]

55 (a) [3:34]      Well, we did play [instruments], these small pipes and end-blown flutes.

excl
dat 1sg clt
thus adv with
whistle pl f
and
with
flute pl m play 1pl impf I

56 (a) [3:38]      That is, the shepherds played [them]. But that’s not some kind of,

play 3pl impf I
comp
say 1pl pres P shepherd pl m def but this sg n med adj
3sg pres cop clt
neg
3sg pres cop clt
some sg f adj

57 (a) [3:42]      like you might say, performing in some kind of orchestra, but [rather]

thus med adv
comp
acc refl clt
say 3sg pres P how rel some.kind sg m adj orchestra sg m
comp
perform 3pl pres P but

58 (a) [3:47]      [a shepherd] walks along, chirps after his sheep to amuse himself.

thus med adv walk 3sg pres I
and
dat refl clt
chirp 3sg pres I after sheep pl f def
comp
acc refl clt
amuse 3sg pres I

59 (a) [3:50]      We were all such musicians, with small pipes and end-blown flutes.

such pl med adj
[...]
musician pl m
1pl pres aux clt
be pl L.part nom 1pl with
whistle pl f flute pl m

60 (a) [3:54]      Some had bagpipes, and played them; bagpipe players [were] in the interior,

and
bagpipe pl f impf exist
to
some pl adj
and
play.music 3pl impf I interior sg f def bagpiper pl m

61 (a) [3:59]      because when I went to Granichar, there were boys there

because conj
nom 1sg
and
towards Granichar go 1sg aor I
to
there adv there adv impf exist boy pl n

62 (a) [4:02]      playing bagpipes. No, not the [simple] bagpipe but the bagpipe with –

who pl rel adj play 3pl impf I bagpipe pl f neg
3sg pres cop clt
bagpipe sg f bagpipe sg f with

63 (b) [4:05]      End-blown flutes, end-blown flutes. A bagpipe is one thing, an end-blown flute –

flute pl m
and
flute pl m
and
[...]
bagpipe sg f def apart adv
and
flute sg m def

64 (a) [4:08]      Yes indeed. A bagpipe is one thing and an end-blown flute is another.

disc
yes
disc
bagpipe sg f def apart adv
and
flute sg m def apart adv

65 (VZh)       [How do you make sheepfolds?]

66 (a) [4:11]      We make the [sheepfo]lds from wood. Sticks pounded [into the ground] and after the sti–

[...] sg f def
acc f 3sg clt
make 1pl pres I
from
wood pl n def pound pl P.part P stick pl m
and
after [...]

67 (a) [4:17]      it’s covered with rye straw, and inside we make dividers so we can –

this sg n med adj cover sg f P.part P
with
rye.straw sg f
and
inside adv make pl L.part I divider pl f
for
comp
can 1pl pres I
comp

68 (a) [4:23]      to separate the sheep out. The ones who’ve had lambs in one place,

comp
acc refl clt
distribute pl P.part P sheep pl f def
[...]
separately adv which pl rel adj
3pl pres cop clt
bear.lamb pl def P.part P apart adv

69 (a) [4:29]      the ones who haven’t, in another; and yet another for feeding the lambs.

and
not.bear.lamb pl def P.part P apart adv
and
for
feed def vbl.n I
of
lamb pl n def and apart adv

70 (VZh)       [And what do you make the sheepfolds out of?]

71 (a) [4:34]      [We ma]ke [it] from lumber. It’s made from lumber, with –

[...]
from
wooden sg m adj material sg m wooden sg m adj material sg m
acc refl clt
make 3sg pres I with

72 (b) [4:37]      Poles.

stick pl m

73 (a) [4:38]      – poles.

stick pl m

74 (VZh)       Uh huh.

yes

75 (a) [4:40]      Sheepfolds were made back then – they'd choose according to the old custom.

this pl med adj sheepfold pl f
acc refl clt
make 3pl impf I then adv
acc refl clt
choose 3pl impf I in.old.way adv

76 (a) [4:43]      Especially back then, they would choose them to be in places

one sg n adj time sg n especially adv then adv
acc 3pl clt
choose 3pl impf I
in
such pl med adj place pl n

77 (a) [4:47]      that were warm, that were such, that faced – as a shelter

which pl rel adj
3pl pres cop clt
warm pl adj which pl rel adj
3pl pres cop clt
thus adv come 3pl pres I
to
for
shelter sg m

78 (a) [4:51]      from the wind, such that the wind wouldn’t get in. They built them

from
wind pl m def
comp
neg
acc 3pl clt catch 3pl pres I wind pl m def
and
sheepfold pl f def
acc refl clt
make 3pl impf I

79 (a) [4:56]      in a primitive manner. They were primitive, not like now, so to speak,

primitive pl adj again adv primitive pl adj
3pl pres cop clt
neg
3pl pres cop clt as now adv
comp
say 1pl pres P

80 (a) [4:59]      as they make them, but primitive. There’ll be in one sheepfold, let’s say,

rel
acc 3pl clt
make 3pl pres I this sg n adj primitive pl adj
3pl pres cop clt
one f adj sheepfold sg f fut pres exist
comp
say 1pl pres P

81 (a) [5:04]      [space] to get in forty or fifty of today’s sheep. But back then you got in

for
comp
get.in 2sg pres P forty fifty sheep pl f today's pl adj
hes
rather adv then adv get.in 3sg impf I

82 (a) [5:11]      – forty or fifty goats went in, while the sheep lay down outside

forty fifty goat pl f enter 3pl impf I
hes
sheep pl f def
dat refl clt
lie 3pl impf I outside adv

83 (a) [5:14]      in – in the snow, in the rain – “au naturel”.

in
in
snow sg m def
in
rain sg m def
in
nature sg f def

84 (VZh)       [What do you call it when it rains and snows both?]

85 (a) [5:17]      So when it snows or rains we call that sleet.

therefore adv snow sg m
and
rain m when rel precipitate 3sg pres I
dat n 3sg clt
call 1pl pres I sleet sg f nom 1pl

86 (a) [5:20]      [When] it snows or rains, let’s say heavy precipitation,

snow sg m
and
rain m precipitate 3sg pres I
comp
say 1pl pres P strong pl adj precipitation pl m

87 (a) [5:24]      cold weather like that, we call that sleet because it “sleets”.

such sg n med adj cold sg n adj weather sg n def
and
dat n 3sg clt
call 1pl pres I sleet sg f because sleet 3sg pres I

88 (VZh)       [Did you take the sheep out when it snowed?]

89 (a) [5:27]      If there’s not much snow we kept walking, and made the sheep

if conj
3sg pres cop clt
little sg m adj snow sg m def go 1pl impf I go 1pl impf I
and
acc 3pl clt
drive 1pl impf I sheep pl f def
comp

90 (a) [5:31]      root [for food], because otherwise – there wasn’t any grain

comp
root 3pl pres I because conj otherwise adv impf neg exist
acc n 3sg clt
this sg n med adj grain sg n

91 (a) [5:34]      like they make now for animals – fodder modder and various such things –

as now adv prepare 3pl pres P
for
animal pl f def fodder pl m “modder” pl m there adv various pl adj thing pl f

92 (a) [5:37]      back then animals had to subsist on very little. We make piles of leaves

disc
then adv
3pl pres cop clt
to
to
maintenance sg f animal pl f def completely adv little adv make 1pl pres I one pl adj leafage pl m

93 (a) [5:42]      they would make leaf-fodder for some of them, but in very small quantities.

leafage sg m adj fodder sg m
for
some pl adj make 3pl impf I
and
nom sg n in
small sg n adj quantity sg n

94 (a) [5:46]      Mostly they went hungry, out in “nature”. And we fed them young shoots –

mostly adv 3sg impf cop hunger sg m
and
mostly adv
in
nature sg f def
and
feed.shoots 1pl impf I

95 (a) [5:50]      In the old days they fed them shoots. At that time

one sg n adj time sg n
3pl pres aux clt
acc 3pl clt
feed.shoots pl L.part I and many adv
in
this sg n med adj time sg n

96 (a) [5:52]      the forests weren– [cough] weren’t so heavily, [let’s say], regulated.

forest pl f def
neg
neg
3pl pres aux clt be pl L.part so.much med adv
under
control sg m

97 (a) [5:57]      And when snow comes, well – they begin – a whole swath [of trees]

when conj catch 3sg pres P snow sg m
ost
begin 3pl pres I entire sg f adj track sg f here adv

98 (a) [6:02]      begins to be cut down, and they would feed the sheep the offshoots

fut
acc refl clt
begin 3sg pres P cut 3pl pres I
and
sheep pl f def
acc 3pl clt
feed.shoots 3pl impf I with
offshoot sg m

99 (a) [6:07]      from the forest, like now, you might say.

from
forest sg f def as now adv
comp
say 1pl pres P
1 (VZh)       [Какво правеше като овчар?]

         [What did you do as a shepherd?]


2 (a) [0:03]       mi kətu ufč'àr' rəbòtih pəs'àh ufc'ète i iskàrvəhne xùbəvi jàgnetə

         I worked as a shepherd. I used to graze the sheep, and we raised nice lambs.


3 (a) [0:07]       gl'èdəne xùbəvu ž'ivòtnite i dàvəhne pruizvòtsvu nə nə pretprijɛ̀tietu nə à

         We cared for the animals well, and gave the "products" to the firm, to the ah-


4 (a) [0:14]       àpekàtu nə t'èkezes'ètu punəč'àlu əmə i kətu č'àsnik d'e

         agrarian complex, the collective farm, in principle. Even as a private [owner]


5 (a) [0:18]       pàk si beh ufč'àr' sl'et tvàskə kətu se už'ènix stànəx zeml'ed'èlec

         I was a shepherd also. After that – when I got married I became a farmer.


6 (a) [0:26]       nàč'i zemed'èlie pòčnəɣ də rəbòt'e i ràbutine du ednò izv'èsnu vr'ɛ̀me

         That is, I began to work in agriculture; we worked [at that] a certain time.


7 (a) [0:32]       sl'et tvà pres č'etìres i dev'ètə gudìnə brəzùvəne t'èkezes'ètu vl'àzəne vəf

         After that, in ’49 [when] we formed the collective farm, and entered into


8 (a) [0:36]       t'èkezes'ètu i pòčnəhne də rəbòtim zədrùžnu tàm i vəf n'ègu rəbòtix

         the collective farm, we began to work there collectively and I worked there


9 (a) [0:47]       kətu brigədìr pɤ̀rvite gudìni sl'et tvàskə i pretsedàtel' nə t'èkezes'ètu b'èx

         as a supervisor the first years. After that I was the chair of the collective farm.


10 (a) [0:54]       vəf t'èkezes'ètu tugàvə [cough] pɤ̀rvite gudìni sr'ɛ̀štəne gul'ɛ̀mi trùdnusti

         During the first years in the collective we encountered great difficulties,


11 (a) [1:00]       nəlì tugàvə beš'e nìsku plət'èn trùduvijə dèn

         [as] at that time a working day was paid very poorly.


12 (VZh)       [Кажи ми за овчарството и такива работи.]

         [Tell me about sheepherding and such things.]


13 (a) [1:04]       punəč'àlu nìe ufc'ɛ̀te kətu gi pòčneš ùtrin š'e stànem

         Generally we – you start out with sheep in the morning: we’ll get up,


14 (a) [1:08]       š'e gi š'e gi nəxrànime š'e i na š'e i nəxrànime

         We’ll – we’ll feed them, we’ll feed them,


15 (a) [1:12]       š'e udlɤ̀č'ime àgnetə̥tə ud'èlnu š'e dəd'èm nə màjkite də jədɤ̀t

         we’ll take the lambs off separately, we’ll give food to the mothers,


16 (a) [1:15]       pu màlku punəč'àlu sl'et tvàskə nə àgneətə pàk dàvəhne

         a little at the beginning, and then we gave [food] to the lambs.


17 (a) [1:20]       i gi pùštəhne nə pàš'e predìmnu tùkə se se dəržɤ̀t dərž'àə ž'ivòtnite

         And [then] we let them out to graze. Here the animals were mostly kept


18 (a) [1:27]       nə nə pàš'e i bène trìmə dùš'i rəbòtnici edìnijət ustàvəš'e pri àgneətə

         out in the pasture. There were three of us workers. One stayed with the lambs,


19 (a) [1:32]       drùgijət ustàvəš'e zəbìrəš'e ednɤ̀tə surìjə ufc'è nə dv'à surìi gi del'ɛ̀ne

         another drove one herd of sheep – we separated the sheep into two herds –


20 (a) [1:36]       drùgijəd drùgətə surìjə ednò puč'ìstvəš'e kuš'àrətə tàm

         and the other, the other herd. One was cleaning out the sheep pen there


21 (a) [1:41]       hràneš'e ˀàgneətə nə.òb'et št'ɛ̀še də i dukàrə də gi i duìme

         feeding the lambs. At noon he'd take them to [where] we milk [the sheep].


22 (a) [1:46]       dujàhne gi prenàs'əhme ml'əkòtu səs məgàretə vəf s'èlu du pùntə

         We milked them, and took the milk on donkeys to the village, to the collection point


23 (a) [1:52]       kəd'ètu beše vəf s'èlutu i təkà prutìč'əš'i cal c'ɛ̀lijə sezòn

         that was [located] in the village. And so went the whole season


24 (a) [1:59]       nə ràbutə vəf živutnuvɤ̀tsvu̥

         of work in animal husbandry.


25 (VZh)       [Какви други животни гледахте?]

         [What other animals did you care for?]


26 (a) [2:04]       əm drùgi ž'iòtni təkà surìi nè səm gl'èdəl

         I didn’t look after any other animals in herds like that.


27 (b) [2:07]       kràvi

         Cows.


28 (a) [2:07]       kràvite gl'èdəm nìə krəvàrite si ìməš'e ud'èlnu krəvàri

         I tend cows. We cowherds – there was a separate [group] of cowherds


29 (a) [2:11]       kuìtu se zənimàvəhə səs krəvef'èrmətə i tè tàm nəlì

         who were busy at the cow farm – and they, you know,


30 (a) [2:17]       lɤ̀č'exə tel'ètətə xrànexə gi ə edìnijət ədìnijət də kàž'e

         took the calves from [their mothers] and fed them. One – that is one –


31 (a) [2:24]       hòdeš'e səs kràvite a drùgijə ustàvəš'e pri tel'ètətə xrànehə gi

         went with the cows, and the other stayed with the calves [and] fed them.


32 (VZh)       [Какви занаяти имаше в селото?]

         [What sorts of occupations were there in the village?]


33 (a) [2:29]       ami tìjə zənəjàtite vəf s'èlutu sə t'àh elì vəv ž'ivutnuvɤ̀svutu̥

         Well, the occupations in the villages are these: either in animal husbandry


34 (a) [2:33]       š'e̥ si̥ ufč'àr' jelì š'e sì vəf pul'evɤ̀svutu č'ufč'ìe

         – you’re a shepherd – or you’re in field labor, a land worker


35 (a) [2:37]       d'ètu mu vìkəme nìe pu.nàš'emu urèd də kàž'em ž'ènət

         as we say in our [speech]. For example they plow, they reap,


36 (a) [2:41]       vòzet snòpetu nə vərš'àč'kətə gu vərš'àhə e

         they transport sheaves, they thresh them at the threshing machine,


37 (a) [2:45]       e təkà prutìčəše ràbutətə vəf pul'evɤ̀svu

         and that’s how work progressed in field agriculture.


38 (VZh)       [А биволи имаше ли?]

         [Were there water buffaloes?]


39 (a) [2:49]       ìməš'e səfs'èm màlku punəč'àlu ìməš'e biul'à mnògu

         There were very few. In principle there were many water buffaloes,


40 (a) [2:53]       predì də sə ubrəzùvə t'èkezes'ètu dukətu bene č'àsni

         Before the collective farm was formed, when we were private [landowners],


41 (a) [2:56]       biul'à ìməš'e kunè ìməš'e kràvi ìməš'e təkìvə

         there were water buffaloes, horses, cows, there were these –


42 (a) [2:59]       tugàvə ìməš'e bìuli mnògu kràvi ìmaše

         at that time there were many water buffaloes. There were cows –


43 (b) [3:04]       kòne ìmaš'e

         There were horses.


44 (a) [3:05]       kòne ìməš'e svìni ìməš'e pàk təkà pu surìjki surìjki d'ètu ìməš'e

         There were horses, there were pigs in small herds, these small herds –


45 (a) [3:11]       č'àsni surìjki ìməš'e mu vìkəme nìe ìməš'e dubìtək

         private herds as we call them, there were livestock.


46 (VZh)       kàk im vìkaxte vìe

         How did you call those?


47 (a) [3:16]       surìje

         “Suriye” (herds)


48 (VZh)       a na mnògoto takòvo

         Ah, for [a group of] many –


49 (a) [3:18]       nə mnògutu grùpətə ž'ivòtni mu vìkəme mu dùməme svì

         When there are many, a group of animals, we call that pi-


50 (VZh)       svìn'e

         Pigs.


51 (a) [3:22]       svìni da i ìməš'e živòtni mnògu ubàč'e sl'et tvàskə

         Pigs, yes. And there were a lot of animals. However after that


52 (a) [3:28]       i xòrətə ispàdnəxə lìpsəhə izmr'àhə d'ètu ìmə ednɤ̀ dùmə

         people fell into poverty, they disappeared, they died out, as they say,


53 (a) [3:33]       pək i živòtnite i tìə si

         and the animals, they too –


54 (VZh)       [Свиреха ли с нещо?]

         [And did people play musical instruments?]


55 (a) [3:34]       òx mi tɤ̀j səs svìrki i s kəvàl':i svìrehne

         Well, we did play [instruments], these small pipes and end-blown flutes.


56 (a) [3:38]       svìreə də kàž'em ufčàrite əmə tuvà e nè e n'àkujə

         That is, the shepherds played [them]. But that’s not some kind of,


57 (a) [3:42]       təkà də se kàž'e kəktu n'àkuj urkèstər də iskàrət əmì

         like you might say, performing in some kind of orchestra, but [rather]


58 (a) [3:47]       təkà vərì tə si turulìkə pudir ufc'ɛ̀te də sə zəwəvl'àvə

         [a shepherd] walks along, chirps after his sheep to amuse himself.


59 (a) [3:50]       təkìvə svi sviràč'i sme bilì nìe səs svìrki kəvàl':i

         We were all such musicians, with small pipes and end-blown flutes.


60 (a) [3:54]       i gàjdi ìməš'e nə n'àkuj tə svìrexə vətrešnustɤ̀ gəjdərž'ìi

         Some had bagpipes, and played them; bagpipe players [were] in the interior,


61 (a) [3:59]       štòtu jà i kəde grənč'àr xòdih nə tàm tàm ìməš'e mumč'ètə

         because when I went to Granichar, there were boys there


62 (a) [4:02]       kuìtu svìrehə gàjdi nè e gàjdə gàjdə səs

         playing bagpipes. No, not the [simple] bagpipe but the bagpipe with –


63 (b) [4:05]       kəvàl':i i kəvàl':i i də gàjdətə bəškɤ̀ i kəvàlət

         End-blown flutes, end-blown flutes. A bagpipe is one thing, an end-blown flute –


64 (a) [4:08]       e dà de gàjdətə bəškɤ̀ i kəvàlət bəškɤ̀

         Yes indeed. A bagpipe is one thing and an end-blown flute is another.


65 (VZh)       [Как се прави къшлата?]

         [How do you make sheepfolds?]


66 (a) [4:11]       lɤ̀tə jə pràine ut dərv'ètə nəkuvàni prɤ̀k':e i slet prək

         We make the [sheepfo]lds from wood. Sticks pounded [into the ground] and after the sti–


67 (a) [4:17]       tvàskə pukrìtə s rəž'ànkə i vɤ̀tre pràeni pregràdi zə də mòž'em də

         it’s covered with rye straw, and inside we make dividers so we can –


68 (a) [4:23]       də sə rəspredel'èni ufc'ɛ̀te pu pu.ud'èlnu kuìtu sə uàgnenite bəškɤ̀

         to separate the sheep out. The ones who’ve had lambs in one place,


69 (a) [4:29]       i neuàgnenite bəškɤ̀ i zə xrànenetu nə àgnetətə pàk bəškɤ̀

         the ones who haven’t, in another; and yet another for feeding the lambs.


70 (VZh)       [И от какво се строи къшлата?]

         [And what do you make the sheepfolds out of?]


71 (a) [4:34]       ne ud dɤ̀rven məter'àl dɤ̀rven məter'àl sə prài səs

         [We ma]ke [it] from lumber. It’s made from lumber, with –


72 (b) [4:37]       prɤ̀k':e

         Poles.


73 (a) [4:38]       prɤ̀k':e

         – poles.


74 (VZh)       əxə

         Uh huh.


75 (a) [4:40]       tìjə kəšlì sə pràvehə tugàs sə izbìrəhə pustàrumu

         Sheepfolds were made back then – they'd choose according to the old custom.


76 (a) [4:43]       ednò vr'ɛ̀me usòbenu tugàvə gi izbìrəhə nə təkìvə mistà

         Especially back then, they would choose them to be in places


77 (a) [4:47]       kujìtu sə tòpli kujìtu sə təkà duvàdət nə nə zàvet

         that were warm, that were such, that faced – as a shelter


78 (a) [4:51]       ud vɛ̀truvetu də ne gì fàštət vɛ̀truvetu i kəš'lìte sə pràehə

         from the wind, such that the wind wouldn’t get in. They built them


79 (a) [4:56]       primətìvni pàk primətìvni sə ne sɤ̀ kətu segà də kàž'em

         in a primitive manner. They were primitive, not like now, so to speak,


80 (a) [4:59]       dèt gi pràjət tuvà primətìvni sə ednɤ̀ kəšlɤ̀ š'e ìmə də kàž'em

         as they make them, but primitive. There’ll be in one sheepfold, let’s say,


81 (a) [5:04]       zə də fkàrəš č'etirì:se pedesè ufcè segàšni ə pək tugàvə fkàrvəš'e

         [space] to get in forty or fifty of today’s sheep. But back then you got in


82 (a) [5:11]       četrì:se pedesè kòzi flìzəhə ə ufc'ɛ̀te si lež'àə vɤ̀nkə

         – forty or fifty goats went in, while the sheep lay down outside


83 (a) [5:14]       nə nə snegɤ̀t nə dəždɤ̀t nə priròdətə

         in – in the snow, in the rain – “au naturel”.


84 (VZh)       [Как се казва когато вали сняг и дъжд?]

         [What do you call it when it rains and snows both?]


85 (a) [5:17]       zətùj sn'àk i dɤ̀š kugàtu vəlì mu vìkəme xləpàvicə nìe

         So when it snows or rains we call that sleet.


86 (a) [5:20]       sn'àk i dɤ̀š vəlì də kàž'em sìl'ni vəl'èž'uve

         [When] it snows or rains, let’s say heavy precipitation,


87 (a) [5:24]       təkìvə stud'ènu vr'ɛ̀metu i mu vìkəme xləpàvicə č'e xl'èpi

         cold weather like that, we call that sleet because it “sleets”.


88 (VZh)       [Ако имаше сняг изкарвахте ли овцете?]

         [Did you take the sheep out when it snowed?]


89 (a) [5:27]       ku e màlək snegɤ̀t òdene òdene tə gi kàrəne ufc'ète də

         If there’s not much snow we kept walking, and made the sheep


90 (a) [5:31]       də ròv'ət zəštòtu ìnəč'e n'èməš'e gu tuvà zəjrè

         root [for food], because otherwise – there wasn’t any grain


91 (a) [5:34]       kàktu segà prigòtv'ət zə ž'ivòtnite səlàž'i məl'àž'i tàm ràzni ràbuti

         like they make now for animals – fodder modder and various such things –


92 (a) [5:37]       mi tugàvə sə nə nə izdrɤ̀škə ž'ivòtnite səfs'èm màlku pràim ednì lìšnici

         back then animals had to subsist on very little. We make piles of leaves


93 (a) [5:42]       lìsnikuf furàš' nə n'àkuj pràexə i tò vəf màlku kulìč'esvu

         they would make leaf-fodder for some of them, but in very small quantities.


94 (a) [5:46]       pòveč'etu beše glàt i pòveč'etu nə priròdətə i brəstìne

         Mostly they went hungry, out in “nature”. And we fed them young shoots –


95 (a) [5:50]       ednò vr'ɛ̀me sə gi brəstìli pək nògu f tvà vr'ɛ̀me

         In the old days they fed them shoots. At that time


96 (a) [5:52]       gurìte ne [cough] ne sɤ̀ bilì tòlkuvə put kuntròl

         the forests weren– [cough] weren’t so heavily, [let’s say], regulated.


97 (a) [5:57]       kətu fàne sn'àk è zəpòčvət c'àlə l'èntə tùkə

         And when snow comes, well – they begin – a whole swath [of trees]


98 (a) [6:02]       š'e se pòčne sekɤ̀t i fc'ɛ̀ti gi brəst'àxə səz brɤ̀s

         begins to be cut down, and they would feed the sheep the offshoots


99 (a) [6:07]       ud guràtə kàktu segà də kàž'em

         from the forest, like now, you might say.


1 (VZh)       [Какво правеше като овчар?]

2 (a) [0:03]       ми кәту уфч’а̀р’ рәбо̀тиh пәс’а̀h уфц’ѐте и иска̀рвәhне ху̀бәви йа̀гнетә

3 (a) [0:07]       гл’ѐдәне ху̀бәву ж’иво̀тните и да̀вәhне пруизво̀тсву нә нә претприйе̂̀тиету нә а̀

4 (a) [0:14]       а̀пека̀ту нә т’ѐкезес’ѐту пу нәч’а̀лу әмә и кәту ч’а̀сник д’е

5 (a) [0:18]       па̀к си беh уфч’а̀р’ сл’ет тва̀скә кәту се уж’ѐних ста̀нәх земл’ед’ѐлец

6 (a) [0:26]       на̀ч’и земед’ѐлие по̀чнәɣ дә рәбо̀т’е и ра̀бутине ду едно̀ изв’ѐсну вр’е̂̀ме

7 (a) [0:32]       сл’ет тва̀ прес ч’етѝрес и дев’ѐтә гудѝнә брәзу̀вәне т’ѐкезес’ѐту вл’а̀зәне вәф

8 (a) [0:36]       т’ѐкезес’ѐту и по̀чнәhне дә рәбо̀тим зәдру̀жну та̀м и вәф н’ѐгу рәбо̀тих

9 (a) [0:47]       кәту бригәдѝр пъ̀рвите гудѝни сл’ет тва̀скә и претседа̀тел’ нә т’ѐкезес’ѐту б’ѐх

10 (a) [0:54]       вәф т’ѐкезес’ѐту туга̀вә [кашляне] пъ̀рвите гудѝни ср’е̂̀штәне гул’е̂̀ми тру̀днусти

11 (a) [1:00]       нәлѝ туга̀вә беш’е нѝску пләт’ѐн тру̀дувийә дѐн

12 (VZh)       [Кажи ми за овчарството и такива работи.]

13 (a) [1:04]       пунәч’а̀лу нѝе уфц’е̂̀те кәту ги по̀чнеш у̀трин ш’е ста̀нем

14 (a) [1:08]       ш’е ги ш’е ги нәхра̀ниме ш’е и на ш’е и нәхра̀ниме

15 (a) [1:12]       ш’е удлъ̀ч’име а̀гнетə̭тә уд’ѐлну ш’е дәд’ѐм нә ма̀йките дә йәдъ̀т

16 (a) [1:15]       пу ма̀лку пу нәч’а̀лу сл’ет тва̀скә нә а̀гнеәтә па̀к да̀вәhне

17 (a) [1:20]       и ги пу̀штәhне нә па̀ш’е предѝмну ту̀кә се се дәржъ̀т дәрж’а̀ә ж’иво̀тните

18 (a) [1:27]       нә нə па̀ш’е и бѐне трѝмә ду̀ш’и рәбо̀тници едѝнийәт уста̀вәш’е при а̀гнеәтә

19 (a) [1:32]       дру̀гийәт уста̀вәш’е зәбѝрәш’е еднъ̀тә сурѝйә уфц’ѐ нә дв’а̀ сурѝи ги дел’е̂̀не

20 (a) [1:36]       дру̀гийәд дру̀гәтә сурѝйә едно̀ пуч’ѝствәш’е куш’а̀рәтә та̀м

21 (a) [1:41]       hра̀неш’е ˀа̀гнеәтә нә.о̀б’ет шт’е̂̀ше дә и дука̀рә дә ги и дуѝме

22 (a) [1:46]       дуйа̀hне ги прена̀с’әhме мл’әко̀ту сәс мәга̀ретә вәф с’ѐлу ду пу̀нтә

23 (a) [1:52]       кәд’ѐту беше вәф с’ѐлуту и тәка̀ прутѝч’әш’и цал ц’е̂̀лийә сезо̀н

24 (a) [1:59]       нә ра̀бутә вәф живутнувъ̀тсву̭

25 (VZh)       [Какви други животни гледахте?]

26 (a) [2:04]       әм дру̀ги ж’ио̀тни тәка̀ сурѝи нѐ сәм гл’ѐдәл

27 (b) [2:07]       кра̀ви

28 (a) [2:07]       кра̀вите гл’ѐдәм нѝә крәва̀рите си ѝмәш’е уд’ѐлну крәва̀ри

29 (a) [2:11]       куѝту се зәнима̀вәhә сәс крәвеф’ѐрмәтә и тѐ та̀м нәлѝ

30 (a) [2:17]       лъ̀ч’ехә тел’ѐтәтә хра̀нехә ги ә едѝнийәт әдѝнийәт дә ка̀ж’е

31 (a) [2:24]       hо̀деш’е сәс кра̀вите а дру̀гийә уста̀вәш’е при тел’ѐтәтә хра̀неhә ги

32 (VZh)       [Какви занаяти имаше в селото?]

33 (a) [2:29]       ами тѝйә зәнәйа̀тите вәф с’ѐлуту сә т’а̀h елѝ вәв ж’ивутнувъ̀свуту̭

34 (a) [2:33]       ш’е̭ си̭ уфч’а̀р’ йелѝ ш’е сѝ вәф пул’евъ̀свуту ч’уфч’ѝе

35 (a) [2:37]       д’ѐту му вѝкәме нѝе пу.на̀ш’ему урѐд дә ка̀ж’ем ж’ѐнәт

36 (a) [2:41]       во̀зет сно̀пету нә вәрш’а̀ч’кәтә гу вәрш’а̀hә е

37 (a) [2:45]       е тәка̀ прутѝчәше ра̀бутәтә вәф пул’евъ̀сву

38 (VZh)       [А биволи имаше ли?]

39 (a) [2:49]       ѝмәш’е сәфс’ѐм ма̀лку пунәч’а̀лу ѝмәш’е биул’а̀ мно̀гу

40 (a) [2:53]       предѝ дә сә убрәзу̀вә т’ѐкезес’ѐту дукәту бене ч’а̀сни

41 (a) [2:56]       биул’а̀ ѝмәш’е кунѐ ѝмәш’е кра̀ви ѝмәш’е тәкѝвә

42 (a) [2:59]       туга̀вә ѝмәш’е бѝули мно̀гу кра̀ви ѝмаше

43 (b) [3:04]       ко̀не ѝмаш’е

44 (a) [3:05]       ко̀не ѝмәш’е свѝни ѝмәш’е па̀к тәка̀ пу сурѝйки сурѝйки д’ѐту ѝмәш’е

45 (a) [3:11]       ч’а̀сни сурѝйки ѝмәш’е му вѝкәме нѝе ѝмәш’е дубѝтәк

46 (VZh)       ка̀к им вѝкахте вѝе

47 (a) [3:16]       сурѝйе

48 (VZh)       а на мно̀гото тако̀во

49 (a) [3:18]       нә мно̀гуту гру̀пәтә ж’иво̀тни му вѝкәме му ду̀мәме свѝ

50 (VZh)       свѝн’е

51 (a) [3:22]       свѝни да и ѝмәш’е живо̀тни мно̀гу уба̀ч’е сл’ет тва̀скә

52 (a) [3:28]       и хо̀рәтә испа̀днәхә лѝпсәhә измр’а̀hә д’ѐту ѝмә еднъ̀ ду̀мә

53 (a) [3:33]       пәк и живо̀тните и тѝә си

54 (VZh)       [Свиреха ли с нещо?]

55 (a) [3:34]       о̀х ми тъ̀й сәс свѝрки и с кәва̀л’:и свѝреhне

56 (a) [3:38]       свѝреә дә ка̀ж’ем уфча̀рите әмә тува̀ е нѐ е н’а̀куйә

57 (a) [3:42]       тәка̀ дә се ка̀ж’е кәкту н’а̀куй уркѐстәр дә иска̀рәт әмѝ

58 (a) [3:47]       тәка̀ вәрѝ тә си турулѝкә пудир уфц’е̂̀те дә сә зәўәвл’а̀вә

59 (a) [3:50]       тәкѝвә сви свира̀ч’и сме билѝ нѝе сәс свѝрки кәва̀л’:и

60 (a) [3:54]       и га̀йди ѝмәш’е нә н’а̀куй тә свѝрехә вәтрешнустъ̀ гәйдәрж’ѝи

61 (a) [3:59]       што̀ту йа̀ и кәде грәнч’а̀р хо̀диh нә та̀м та̀м ѝмәш’е мумч’ѐтә

62 (a) [4:02]       куѝту свѝреhә га̀йди нѐ е га̀йдә га̀йдә сәс

63 (b) [4:05]       кәва̀л’:и и кәва̀л’:и и дә га̀йдәтә бәшкъ̀ и кәва̀ләт

64 (a) [4:08]       е да̀ де га̀йдәтә бәшкъ̀ и кәва̀ләт бәшкъ̀

65 (VZh)       [Как се прави къшлата?]

66 (a) [4:11]       лъ̀тә йә пра̀ине ут дәрв’ѐтә нәкува̀ни пръ̀к’:е и слет прәк

67 (a) [4:17]       тва̀скә пукрѝтә с рәж’а̀нкә и въ̀тре пра̀ени прегра̀ди зә дә мо̀ж’ем дә

68 (a) [4:23]       дә сә рәспредел’ѐни уфц’е̂̀те пу пу уд’ѐлну куѝту сә уа̀гнените бәшкъ̀

69 (a) [4:29]       и неуа̀гнените бәшкъ̀ и зә хра̀ненету нә а̀гнетәтә па̀к бәшкъ̀

70 (VZh)       [И от какво се строи къшлата?]

71 (a) [4:34]       не уд дъ̀рвен мәтер’а̀л дъ̀рвен мәтер’а̀л сә пра̀и сәс

72 (b) [4:37]       пръ̀к’:е

73 (a) [4:38]       пръ̀к’:е

74 (VZh)       əхə

75 (a) [4:40]       тѝйә кәшлѝ сә пра̀веhә туга̀с сә избѝрәhә пуста̀руму

76 (a) [4:43]       едно̀ вр’е̂̀ме усо̀бену туга̀вә ги избѝрәhә нә тәкѝвә миста̀

77 (a) [4:47]       куйѝту сә то̀пли куйѝту сə тәка̀ дува̀дәт нә нә за̀вет

78 (a) [4:51]       уд ве̂̀трувету дә не гѝ фа̀штәт ве̂̀трувету и кәш’лѝте сә пра̀еhә

79 (a) [4:56]       примәтѝвни па̀к примәтѝвнә сә не съ̀ кәту сега̀ дә ка̀ж’ем

80 (a) [4:59]       дѐт ги пра̀йәт тува̀ примәтѝвни сә еднъ̀ кәшлъ̀ ш’е ѝмә дә ка̀ж’ем

81 (a) [5:04]       зә дә фка̀рәш ч’етирѝ:се педесѐ уфцѐ сега̀шни ә пәк туга̀вә фка̀рвәш’е

82 (a) [5:11]       четрѝ:се педесѐ ко̀зи флѝзәhә ә уфц’е̂̀те си леж’а̀ә въ̀нкә

83 (a) [5:14]       нә нə снегъ̀т нә дәждъ̀т нә приро̀дәтә

84 (VZh)       [Как се казва когато вали сняг и дъжд?]

85 (a) [5:17]       зәту̀й сн’а̀к и дъ̀ш куга̀ту вәлѝ му вѝкәме хләпа̀вицә нѝе

86 (a) [5:20]       сн’а̀к и дъ̀ш вәлѝ дә ка̀ж’ем сѝл’ни вәл’ѐж’уве

87 (a) [5:24]       тәкѝвә студ’ѐну вр’е̂̀мету и му вѝкәме хләпа̀вицә ч’е хл’ѐпи

88 (VZh)       [Ако имаше сняг изкарвахте ли овцете?]

89 (a) [5:27]       ку е ма̀ләк снегъ̀т о̀дене о̀дене тә ги ка̀рәне уфц’ѐте дә

90 (a) [5:31]       дә ро̀в’әт зәшто̀ту ѝнәч’е н’ѐмәш’е гу тува̀ зәйрѐ

91 (a) [5:34]       ка̀кту сега̀ приго̀тв’әт зә ж’иво̀тните сәла̀ж’и мәл’а̀ж’и та̀м ра̀зни ра̀бути

92 (a) [5:37]       ми туга̀вә сә нә нә издръ̀шкә ж’иво̀тните сәфс’ѐм ма̀лку пра̀им еднѝ лѝшници

93 (a) [5:42]       лѝсникуф фура̀ш’ нә н’а̀куй пра̀ехә и то̀ вәф ма̀лку кулѝч’есву

94 (a) [5:46]       по̀веч’ету беше гла̀т и по̀веч’ету нә приро̀дәтә и брәстѝне

95 (a) [5:50]       едно̀ вр’е̂̀ме сә ги брәстѝли пәк но̀гу ф тва̀ вр’е̂̀ме

96 (a) [5:52]       гурѝте не [кашляне] не съ̀ билѝ то̀лкувә пут кунтро̀л

97 (a) [5:57]       кәту фа̀не сн’а̀к ѐ зәпо̀чвәт ц’а̀лә л’ѐнтә ту̀кә

98 (a) [6:02]       ш’е се по̀чне секъ̀т и фц’е̂̀ти ги брәст’а̀хә сәз бръ̀с

99 (a) [6:07]       уд гура̀тә ка̀кту сега̀ дә ка̀ж’ем

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Comments and questions may be addressed to bdlt@berkeley.edu.

Recommended Model for Citations

Bulgarian Dialectology as Living Tradition [2016] (http://www.bulgariandialectology.org, visited on 1 March 2016)
Babjak 1: 13-15. In: Bulgarian Dialectology as Living Tradition [2016] (http://www.bulgariandialectology.org, visited on 1 March 2016)

Text | by Dr. Radut