1 (VZh) [How do you sow lentils?]
2 (a) [0:02] [For] sowing: we sow – You sow. [First] you plow up the field, [then] sow it [all].
|hes||for||sow vbl.n I||acc refl clt||sow 1sg pres I||plow 3sg pres I||acc refl clt||sow 3sg pres P||acc refl clt||field sg f def med||sow 3sg pres P||acc refl clt|
3 (a) [0:08] And then you harrow it, and when it’s ready to harvest,
|and||then adv||again adv||acc refl clt||harrow 3sg pres I||and||when conj||become 3sg pres P||for||pluck vbl.n I|
4 (a) [ 0:13] We harvest it like usual. We cut the taller [growth] with a scythe
|rel dist||all adv||pluck 1pl pres I||which sg f rel med adj||3sg pres cop clt||more||high sg f adj||and||with||scythe sg f||acc f 3sg clt||mow 3pl pres I|
5 (a) [0:18] and the lower [growth] by hand. We harvest it [all], and put it
|which sg f rel med adj||3sg pres cop clt||more||low sg f adj||with||hand pl f||pluck sg imv I||pluck sg imv I||pluck sg imv I||make 1pl pres I||acc f 3sg clt|
6 (a) [0:22] into little piles. Later we put them into bigger stacks and then
|in||small.pile pl f||later adv||put 1pl pres P||in||more||big pl adj||stack pl f||and||then adv|
7 (a) [0:28] we thresh it again with horses,
|again adv||acc f 3sg clt||thresh 1pl pres I||with||horse pl m|
8 (a) [0:30] with a mule, or a donkey, or whatever is available.
|with||mule sg n||donkey sg n||what sg n rel med||pres exist|
9 (VZh) [Or with cattle?]
10 (a) [0:34] Ah, no. We didn’t – we didn’t do threshing with cattle.
|disc||no||now adv||with||cattle pl n||neg||1pl pres aux clt||neg||1pl pres aux clt||thresh pl L.part I|
11 (a) [0:37] We did our threshing with a donkeys [or] with a mule,
|nom 1pl||1pl pres aux clt||thresh pl L.part I||with||donkey sg n||with||mule sg n|
12 (a) [0:39] [or] with a horse. Not with cattle, no.
|horse sg m||no||with||cattle pl n||no|
13 (VZh) [What was it you didn’t thresh with?]
14 (a) [0:41] [We did] not [thresh] with cattle!
|not||with||cattle pl n|
15 (VZh) [What did you do with the lentils?]
16 (a) [0:45] After we winnowed them, we’d cook them. First we shake them through the sieve,
|when conj||acc f 3sg clt||winnow 1pl pres P||boil 1pl pres I||dat refl clt||acc f 3sg clt||sift 1pl pres I||acc f 3sg clt||with||sieve sg n|
17 (a) [0:50] then we put them in water, in the pot, to boil [the first time]
|later adv||dat refl clt||dat f 3sg clt||put 1pl pres P||water sg f||in||pan sg f def med||comp||dat 1pl clt||boil 3sg pres P|
18 (a) [0:53] and then we rinse the lentils and put them to boil [the second time].
|and||then adv||rinse 1pl pres P||with||lentils sg f def med||and||put 1pl pres I||acc f 3sg clt||comp||acc refl clt||boil 3sg pres I|
19 (a) [0:58] We chop up onions and add them, also oil; and it boils and boils.
|chop 1pl pres P||and||onion sg m||onion sg m||put 1pl pres P||and||oil sg n||and||acc refl clt||boil 3sg pres I||boil 3sg pres I|
20 (a) [1:04] And then we thicken it with a little flour
|and||after adv||acc f 3sg clt||knead 1pl pres P||again adv||with||little adv||flour sg n|
21 (a) [1:08] and after that add salt [laughter] and then eat it! With chunks of – [laughter]
|and||then adv||salt 1pl pres P||acc f 3sg clt||and||eat 1pl pres I||chop P.part P|
22 (VZh) [How do you call “thickened milk” (yogurt)?]
23 (a) [1:11] “Thick” milk.
|thick sg n adj||milk sg n|
24 (VZh) What?
25 (a) [1:13] “Thick” milk.
|thick sg n adj||milk sg n|
26 (VZh) [How do you make it?]
27 (a) [1:14] Well, like this. We boil up fresh milk,
|disc||make 3sg pres I||acc refl clt||thus med adv||boil 1pl pres I||dat refl clt||milk sg n def med||fresh sg n adj|
28 (a) [1:18] set it aside to cool a bit, and then add starter
|leave 1pl pres P||acc n 3sg clt||little adv||comp||cool 3sg pres P||and||after adv||acc n 3sg clt||ferment 1pl pres P|
29 (a) [1:22] – a bit of yogurt. Then we put it in a – We beat it
|with||little adv||sour sg n adj||milk sg n||dat n 3sg clt||put 1pl pres P||in||hes||beat 1pl pres P||acc n 3sg clt|
30 (a) [1:28] and then wrap up the pot in which we will cause it to ferment.
|and||acc n 3sg clt||wrap 1pl pres P||in||vessel sg m def med||in||which sg n rel med adj||acc n 3sg clt||ferment 1pl pres I|
31 (a) [1:32] And then it becomes “thick”.
|and||then adv||dat refl clt||become 3sg pres I||thick sg n adj|
32 (VZh) [What?]
33 (a) [1:34] “Thick!” [laughter]
|thick sg n adj|
34 (VZh) [Did you used to go out to do the harvesting?]
35 (a) [1:36 ] Well, we did go out to do harvesting, but now we’ve lost the habit of it [laughter]
|disc||to||harvest sg f||go 1pl pres I||nom 1pl||now adv||acc refl clt||unlearn 1pl aor P||from||harvest sg f|
36 (VZh) [But in the old days did you go out?]
37 (a) [1:40] Oh [yes], we went in the old days, and carried children [with us], in cradles [laughter]
|excl||one sg n adj||time sg n||go 1pl impf I||and||child pl n||carry 1pl impf I||
||in||cradle sg f|
38 (a) [1:45] on our backs. And we would go, and do the reaping, and gather the sheaves.
|to||back sg m||and||go 1pl impf I||and||reap 1pl impf I||gather 1pl impf I||sheaf pl m def med|
39 (a) [1:50] What [else] could we do? We also had to take care of the kids. We did everything.
|what sg n interr||comp||do 1pl pres I||and||child pl n||look 1pl pres I||and||everything sg n||1pl pres aux clt||do pl L.part I|
40 (VZh) [And when was that?]
41 (a) [1:54] During the harvest.
|at||harvest sg f|
42 (VZh) [Where did you go on Easter (Sunday)?]
43 (a) [1:56] You go to church on Easter [Sunday].
|to||Easter sg m||acc refl clt||go 3sg pres I||to||church sg f|
44 (VZh) Right –
45 (a) [ 1:59] They go around – when they go [there] they go around the church –
|circle 3pl pres I||hes||when conj||go 3pl pres P||and||circle 3pl pres I||church sg f def med||there adv||around||
46 (a) [2:05] they just go around the church. Then they crack eggs there:
|church sg f def med||only adv||circle 3pl pres I||there adv||knock 3pl pres I||egg pl n|
47 (a) [2:10] [everyone] who’s gone to the church gets together and they crack
|and||acc refl clt||gather 3pl pres I||who pl rel med adj||3pl pres aux clt||go pl L.part P||in||church sg f||knock 3pl pres I||acc refl clt|
48 (a) [2:15] eggs there, peel them, and eat them! [laughter] What can I –
|there adv||with||egg pl n def med||peel 3pl pres I||acc 3pl clt||eat 3pl pres I||acc 3pl clt||what sg n interr||comp||dat 2sg clt|
49 (VZh) [Did you keep on fasting on that day also?]
50 (a) [2:18] Well, you fast up till then, but on Easter you eat already –
|disc||to.then adv||acc refl clt||fast 3sg pres I||but||then adv||to||Easter sg m||dat refl clt||eat 3pl pres I||already adv|
51 (a) [2:23] meat, and eggs, and milk –
|and||meat sg n||and||egg pl n||and||milk sg n||now adv|
52 (VZh) [And] banitsa –
|banitsa pl f|
53 (a) [2:26] [Yes,] we make banitsa too. They eat everything [at that point].
|and||banitsa pl f||make 1pl pres I||eat 3pl pres I||everything sg n adj|
54 (VZh) [Did you eat at tables like these (you have now)?]
55 (a) [2:29] No, we had “paraliya” tables. They were different, round and lower down.
|disc||disc||low.table pl f||impf exist||other pl adj||more||low pl adj||spherical pl adj|
56 (a) [2:34] We sat at those when we were smaller,
|and||there adv||dat refl clt||[…]||sit 1pl impf P||as||more||little pl adj|
57 (a) [2:36] but when we grew up and married, we ate at [normal] tables.
|nom 1pl||when conj||become 1pl aor P||already adv||marry pl P.part I||at||table pl f||eat 1pl pres I|
58 (a) [2:41] But earlier on we ate at the “paraliya” tables. At my father’s house
|and||but||more||early adv||at||low.table pl f||eat 1pl impf I||and||at||father sg m||dat 1sg clt|
59 (a) [2:46] there were a lot of us. They had seven children there,
|1pl impf cop||many adv||people pl||there adv||there adv||have 3pl impf I||nom 3pl||seven||child pl n|
60 (a) [2:52] and all of us sat at the “paraliya” tables,
|all pl def med adj||when conj||sit 1pl pres P||at||low.table sg f def med|
61 (a) [2:55] some on small chairs, some hunkered down on their knees,
|to||small.chair pl n||who sg m rel||to||small.chair sg n||who sg m rel||acc refl clt||bend sg m L.part P||to||knee sg n|
62 (a) [2:58] and that’s where we ate.
|and||there adv||dat refl clt||eat 1pl impf I|
63 (VZh) At the “paraliya” tables.
|at||low.table sg f def|
64 (a) [3:01] At the “paraliya” tables. And we ate out of the same bowl, we call it “gyuvech”.
|at||low.table sg f def med||and||in||one sg f adj||bowl sg f||1pl pres aux clt||eat pl L.part I||call 1pl pres I||acc n 3sg clt||stew sg m|
65 (a) [3:06] We fill the “gyuvech” with gruel, [laughter] with lentils, with beans. We dip bread in it,
|fill 1pl pres P||stew sg m def dist||with||gruel sg f||with||lentils sg f||with||beans sg m||crumble 1pl pres P||acc m 3sg clt|
66 (a) [3:11] and eat it. What [else] could we do? [laughter]
|and||eat 1pl pres I||what sg n interr||comp||do 1pl pres I|
67 (b) [3:13] [laughter]
68 (VZh) [How did you thresh rye?]
69 (a) [3:14] [We needed] more time for threshing. When we thresh we drive the horses around,
|[...]||time sg n||thresh 1pl impf I||mostly adv||time sg n||acc refl clt||thresh 3sg pres I||drive 1pl pres I||horse pl m def dist|
70 (a) [3:20] drive them, lift [up all the sheaves]. Some people would cut the sheaves –
|drive 1pl pres I||lift 1pl pres I||some pl adj||pres exist||and||cut 3pl pres I||sheaf pl m def med|
71 (b) [3:24] With an ax.
|with||ax sg f|
72 (a) [3:26] – with an ax and a chopping block, to make them shorter,
|with||ax sg f||at||bottom sg n||wood sg n||and||comp||acc refl clt||more||short pl adj|
73 (a) [3:30] and easier to thresh. Otherwise, we would, while threshing
|more||easy sg n adj||comp||acc refl clt||thresh 3sg pres I||and||but||otherwise adv||how rel||dat refl clt||thresh 1pl pres I|
74 (a) [3:33] other things, also thresh the rye.
|other pl def med adj||thing pl f||thus med adv||and||rye sg m def med||thresh 1pl pres I|
75 (VZh) [And how did you tie up the sheaves?]
76 (a) [3:35] With cords [made] from …
|hes||rope pl n def dist||from|
77 (b) [3:36] from [stalks of] the sheaf [itself]
|from||sheaf sg m def|
78 (a) [3:38] … the sheaves. We make them from a sheaf from the harvest, and put them
|sheaf pl m def dist||dat refl clt||from||sheaf sg m def dist||from||harvest sg f def dist||acc 3pl clt||make 1pl pres P||and||put 1pl pres P||acc m 3sg clt|
79 (a) [3:42] on the ground. We reap by handfuls and put them [in a bunch with] the cord
|to||earth sg f def med||reap 1pl pres I||from||hes||handful pl f def med||and||put 1pl pres I||to||rope sg n def dist|
80 (a) [3:46] and when [the bunch] gets bigger we tie [it off] and start another one,
|become 3sg pres P||interr clt||more||big sg n adj||tie 1pl pres P||again adv||other sg m adj||dat refl clt||make 1pl pres P|
81 (a) [3:50] and so on until we have reaped [the whole] field.
|and||thus med adv||until conj||comp||dat refl clt||reap 1pl pres P||field sg f def med|
82 (VZh) [And what did you do with the sheaves?]
83 (a) [3:53] Well, we make them so that they don’t get wet,
|disc||make 1pl pres P||acc 3pl clt||again adv||comp||neg||acc refl clt||moisten 3pl pres I|
84 (a) [3:57] we make them in cruciform, like this. See, one sheaf here,
|to||cruciform pl m||acc 3pl clt||make 1pl pres I||ost||thus med adv||here adv||one sg m adj||sheaf sg m|
85 (a) [4:00] another there, [yet] another here, and here up above another.
|there adv||other sg m adj||here adv||and||here adv||above adv||other sg m adj|
86 (a) [4:04] We pile them like that [in bunches] of sixteen sheaves each.
|thus med adv||acc 3pl clt||make 1pl pres P||by||sixteen||sheaf ct m|
87 (VZh) [And where do you put them?]
88 (a) [4:07] On the ground! On the ground, that’s where the grain is
|to||earth sg f def med||to||earth sg f def med||but||again adv||thus med adv||this sg n med adj||grain sg n def med|
89 (a) [4:12] one on top of the other so that – so that the grain doesn’t get wet! [laughter]
|one sg n adj||atop||other sg n adj||comp||acc refl clt||comp||neg||acc refl clt||moisten 3sg pres I||grain sg n def med|
90 (VZh) So tell me, tell me what –
|hort||say sg imv P||say sg imv P||which sg n interr adj|
91 (a) [4:19] If the grain gets wet, then the [dough made from it] will get more – more soggy.
|grain sg n def med||when conj||acc refl clt||moisten 3sg pres P||and||become 3sg pres I||later adv||more||[...]||more||sodden sg n adj|
92 (a) [4:24] When it – you know, when we take and grind the wheat [to make] flour
|when inter.rel||acc n 3sg clt||interr||now adv||flour sg n||when conj||take 1pl pres P||and||acc 3pl clt||grind 1pl pres P||grain sg n def dist|
93 (a) [4:29] the flour [from it] comes out worse. You can’t grind –
|and||that sg n dist adj||flour sg n||become 3sg pres P||more||bad sg n adj||neg||can pres imprs||comp||acc refl clt||grind 3sg pres I|
94 (a) [4:33] that is, knead it properly, such as [to make it] become good bread.
|comp||acc refl clt||knead 3sg pres I||nicely adv||comp||become 3sg pres P||nice sg m adj||bread sg m|
95 (a) [4:37] Instead you get unbaked dough – a finger-length of unbaked dough [laughter]
|disc||become 3sg pres I||unbaked.dough sg m||one sg m adj||finger sg m||unbaked.dough sg m||become 3sg pres I|
96 (a) [4:41] That’s what we used to call it in the old days.
|one sg n adj||time sg n||thus med adv||acc 3sg clt||say 1pl impf I|
97 (VZh) [How do you spin, and how do you shear sheep?]
98 (a) [4:42] Spinning – it’s easy to spin.
|spin vbl.n I||acc refl clt||spin 3sg pres I||easy adv|
99 (VZh) With a distaff.
|on||distaff sg f def|
100 (a) [4:44] With a distaff. As for shearing, they hobble the sheep
|on||distaff sg f def dist||and||but||for||shear vbl.n I||hobble 3pl pres I||sheep pl f def med|
101 (a) [4:49] and then we begin to shear [them].
|and||then adv||begin 1pl pres I||comp||shear 1pl pres I|
102 (VZh) [Why do you hobble them?]
103 (a) [4:52] So they don’t jerk about, otherwise you’ll cut them.
|comp||neg||stir 3pl pres I||because||otherwise adv||fut||acc 3pl clt||slice 1pl pres P|
104 (a) [4:55] Once the sheep is lying down then you go at it with the shears
|how rel||dat refl clt||3sg pres aux clt||lie.down sg f L.part P||sheep sg f def med||drive sg imv I||drive sg imv I||drive sg imv I||with||scissors pl.t def dist|
105 (a) [4:59] and you shear it.
|and||acc refl clt||shear 3sg pres P|