1 (VZh) Back then, what did you plant at that time [of the year]?
|and||then adv||what sg n interr||acc refl clt||sow 3sg pres I||by||this sg n adj||time sg n|
2 (a) [0:02] In April you began to plant potatoes, and after that
|in||April sg m||month sg m||grasp 3sg aor I||acc refl clt||sow 3sg pres P||potato pl m def med||more||later adv||again adv|
3 (a) [0:07] beans, corn, and whatever else you had to plant – peas, whatever.
|beans sg m||corn sg m||what sg n rel med||pres exist||acc refl clt||sow 3sg pres P||peas sg m||what sg n rel med|
4 (VZh) And grains?
|and||grain sg n|
5 (a) [0:14] We didn't plant grains here, that was down below …
|grain sg n def med||here adv||neg||sow 1pl pres I||nom n 3sg||below adv|
6 (VZh) Well ...
7 (a) [0:16] … in the plains.
|in||field sg n def med|
8 (VZh) … then, uh …
9 (a) [0:17] Potatoes.
|potato pl m|
10 (VZh) … rye?
|disc||rye sg m|
11 (a) [0:20] A little, a little here and there. But hardly anything at all.
||little adv||little adv||here adv||there adv||neg||almost adv||pres neg exist|
12 (a) [0:23] There used to be, when we were smaller [held smaller land portions] ,
|more||early adv||impf exist||when inter.rel||1pl impf cop||nom 1pl||more||small pl adj|
13 (a) [0:27] We planted a lot of rye [then] in the hills. But now –
|much adv||rye sg f||sow 1pl impf I||by||hill pl f def med||nom n 3sg||now adv||acc refl clt|
14 (a) [0:31] the land is overgrown: the cooperative farm came, and everything –
|and||land sg f def med||acc refl clt||grow.over 3sg pres P||become 3sg aor P||T.K.Z.S sg n||and||everything sg n||nom f 3sg|
15 (a) [0:34] all the [fields] – the land became wooded Balkan [landscape].
|nom f 3sg||mountain sg m||become 3sg aor P||land sg f def med|
16 (VZh) Mmhm.
17 (a) [0:36] Where we once had “torli” (fields) that would bear grain – it all got overgrown.
|where rel||have 1pl impf I||field pl f||comp||bear 3sg pres I||grain sg n||nom n 3sg||acc refl clt||grow.over 3sg aor P|
18 (VZh) You used to call them “torli” …
|nom 2pl||field pl f||acc 3pl clt||say 2pl impf I|
19 (a) [0:43] Hah, [yes]. Fields.
|disc||field pl f|
20 (VZh) … in the old days.
|one sg n adj||time sg n|
21 (a) [0:44] Fields were the less good places, and the nice ones were gardens.
|more||weak pl def med adj||place pl n||field pl f||nice pl def med adj||place pl n||garden pl f|
22 (VZh) And how – how did you work this “torla” (field)? What did you have to do?
||how interr||acc refl clt||work 3sg pres I||field sg f def||what sg n interr||must pres imprs||comp||do 2sg pres P|
23 (a) [0:50] The grass?
|grass sg f def med|
24 (VZh) The “torla”, the field …
|field sg f def||field sg f def||this sg f adj||field sg f|
25 (a) [0:53] The field?
|field sg f def med|
26 (VZh) … where you …
|where rel||2pl pres aux clt||acc 3pl clt|
27 (a) [0:54] Ah, the field. You plant it, and then when it's ripened, you reap it with a sickle.
||field sg f def med||sow 2sg pres P||and||later adv||when inter.rel||ripen 3sg pres P||reap 2sg pres P||acc f 3sg clt||with||sickle sg m||thus med adv|
28 (VZh) Uh huh.
29 (a) [0:59] You reap it and then they thresh it in the threshing field,
|dat refl clt||acc f 3sg clt||reap 2sg pres P||and||acc f 3sg clt||[...]||thresh 3pl pres I||at||threshing.floor sg m|
30 (a) [1:03] and then gather the grain up into bags.
|grain sg n def med||acc n 3sg clt||gather 3pl pres P||thus adv||in||bag pl m|
31 (VZh) And how do they thresh it? What [do they use]?
||to||and||how interr||acc n 3sg clt||thresh 3pl pres I||with||what sg n interr|
32 (a) [1:08] With a mule – mules or horses. The mules go around in a circle.
|with||mule sg n||mule pl n||horse pl f||thus med adv||acc 3pl clt||revolve 3pl pres I||mule pl n def dist|
33 (a) [1:11] One person [stands] in the middle and drives them [forward] with a stick,
|one sg m adj||person sg m||in.the.middle adv||and||acc 3pl clt||with||stick sg f||acc 3pl clt||drive 3sg pres I|
34 (a) [1:14] and that's [how we got] grain earlier. Now they don't do that.
|and||thus dist adv||dat refl clt||grain sg n def med||more||early adv||now adv||no||nom n 3sg||pres neg exist||here adv|
35 (VZh) Don't they winnow it after that?
|neg||acc refl clt||interr clt||winnow 3sg pres I||after adv|
36 (a) [1:19] What?
37 (VZh) Don't they winnow it after they -
|neg||acc refl clt||interr clt||winnow 3sg pres I||after adv||after conj|
38 (a) [1:20] They take it out with a shovel and winnow it.
|disc||winnow 3pl pres P||acc n 3sg clt||with||shovel sg f||thus med adv||acc n 3sg clt||winnow 3pl pres I|
39 (a) [1:22] The wind blows, and the grains fall on the far [side] –
|and||blow 3sg pres I||wind sg m||and||fall 3sg pres I||grain sg n||to||thus dist adv|
40 (VZh) And all that gets gathered into the barn.
|and||this sg n med adj||acc n 3sg clt||gather 3pl pres I||and||in||barn sg m def|
41 (a) [1:29] Yes, the barn.
|disc||barn sg m|
42 (VZh) Is that how you called it, a barn?
|thus adv||interr clt||dat m 3sg clt||say 3pl impf I||barn sg m|
43 (a) [1:31] A barn.
|barn sg m|
44 (VZh) Was there one of these in every house?
|and||in||in||each sg f adj||house sg f||interr clt||dat refl clt||impf exist||such sg n adj|
45 (a) [1:36] What?
46 (VZh) Did every house have one?
|in||each sg f adj||house sg f||interr clt||impf exist|
47 (a) [1:38] Each one. All [of us], everybody planted oats and rye, earlier on.
|disc||each sg f adj||all indcl||all sg n||sow 3pl impf I||oats sg m||rye sg f||all sg n||more||early adv|
48 (a) [1:41] Now, after the cooperative farm [came] forty years ago, they stopped.
|now adv||since conj||3sg pres cop clt||for||in||T.K.Z.S sg n||forty||year pl f||take.away 3pl aor P|
49 (a) [1:45] And now, there's none [of that]. Now we've planted potatoes,
|disc||thus med adv||now adv||pres neg exist||now adv||potato pl m||1pl pres aux clt||sow pl L.part I|
50 (a) [1:48] and now potates again. Otherwise –
|and||now adv||again adv||potato pl m||other sg n adj|
51 (VZh) How did you call potatoes in the old days?
|one sg n adj||time sg n||how interr||acc 3pl clt||call 2pl impf I||potato pl m def|
52 (a) [1:53] “Kumpir” [sharp whistle in background]
|potato sg m|
53 (VZh) “Kompir”
|potato sg m|
54 (a) [1:55] Hah! [laughter]
55 (VZh) Aha. And how did you call tomatoes?
|disc||and||to||tomato pl m def||how interr||say 2pl impf I|
56 (a) [1:56] Well, “patlizhaeni” (eggplant).
|disc||again adv||eggplant pl m|
57 (VZh) “Patlizhaeni”.
|eggplant pl m|
58 (a) [1:59] Hah.
59 (VZh) And did you plant “kochani”?
|and||kohlrabi pl m||sow 2pl impf I||interr clt|
60 (a) [2:01] We did.
|sow 1pl impf I|
61 (VZh) You did.
|sow 2pl impf I|
62 (a) [2:02] For beans. We called it a sort of “bean-beet.”
|for||beans sg m||such sg m dist adj||beans sg m adj||beet sg m||acc m 3sg clt||call 1pl impf I|
63 (a) [2:06] We didn't used to plant sugar beets. Then we bought [some] in order to plant them.
|sugar sg m adj||beet sg m||more||early adv||neg||sow 1pl impf I||later adv||take 1pl aor P||then adv||comp||sow 1pl pres I|
64 (a) [2:10] Then we made molasses from them; it was sugary, you know.
|then adv||molasses sg m||from||acc m 3sg||complete 1pl impf I||sugar sg n adj||such sg n dist adj||3sg impf cop|
65 (VZh) Ah, molasses. How do you make molasses?
|and||molasses sg m||how interr||acc refl clt||make 3sg pres I||molasses sg m|
66 (a) [2:15] You bring the beets in from the field,
|disc||beet sg m def dist||acc m 3sg clt||
||drive 2sg pres P||from||field sg f def med|
67 (a) [2:19] you peel them nicely, and and you boil them up in a cauldron.
|and||peel 2sg pres P||acc m 3sg clt||nicely adv||and||in||one sg m adj||kettle sg m||acc m 3sg clt||boil 2sg pres P|
68 (a) [2:21] Then it's strained through a press and then and then you –
|and||then med adv||with||press sg m def||acc m 3sg clt||acc refl clt||strain 3sg pres P||and||then adv||acc m 3sg clt||[...]|
69 (a) [2:24] they turn it out into a pan and it becomes molasses.
|when conj||acc m 3sg clt||boil 3pl pres P||in||one sg f adj||pan sg m||and||become 3sg pres P||molasses sg m|
70 (RA) Huh.
71 (a) [2:28] [You find it] only in a very few houses now.
|nom n 3sg||now adv||in||rare pl adj||house pl f||pres exist|
72 (a) [2:33] Anything else? This cow has gone off somewhere.
|now adv||still adv||nom f 3sg||cow sg f def prox||dat 1sg clt||go.off 3sg aor P||somewhere adv|
73 (VZh) Huh. Whose cow is that?
|excl||whose sg f adj||3sg pres cop clt||cow sg f|
74 (a) [2:37] Mine.
|mine sg f adj|
75 (VZh) Oh.
76 (a) [2:38] I've been pasturing [it].
|pasture sg f L.part I||1sg pres aux clt|
77 (VZh) In the old days did you have cows? Many [that is]?
|one sg n adj||time sg n||have 2pl impf I||interr clt||cow pl f||many adv|
78 (a) [2:40] Earlier on, because we weren't [yet] in the cooperative form, we had, well,
||nom 1pl||more||early adv||interr||1pl impf cop||not||in||T.K.Z.S sg n||have 1pl impf I||disc|
79 (a) [2:44] we had two or three cows each. We had everything – we had a lot of property.
|disc||by||two f||three||cow pl f||dat refl clt||have 1pl impf I||everything sg n||property sg m||have 1pl impf I||much adv|
80 (a) [2:47] Then everything went into the cooperative farm. They took it from me.
|then adv||enter 3sg aor P||everything sg n def med adj||in||T.K.Z.S sg n||take 3pl aor P||dat 1sg clt||acc n 3sg clt|
81 (a) [2:49] We were left like this. If you work [for them] they'll give you a garden and if not
|remain 1pl aor P||thus dist adv||if conj||work 2sg pres I||fut||dat 2sg clt||give 3pl pres P||garden sg f||if conj||not|
82 (a) [2:53] [then] not. There was no private use [of property] then, nothing.
|not||impf neg exist||neither||personal sg n adj||use vbl.n I||then adv||nothing sg n|
83 (VZh) Hm.
84 (a) [2:56] [Just] some poor thing they give you when you work.
|in.bad.way adv||some.kind sg n adj||and||when inter.rel||work 2sg pres I||give 3pl pres I||dat 2sg clt||acc n 3sg clt|
85 (a) [3:01] And now the land's been returned. But now we've grown old. And there it is.
|but||now adv||acc refl clt||return 3sg aor P||land sg f def prox||but||now adv||grow.old 1pl aor P||such pl dist adj||thing pl f|
86 (VZh) What did you feed the cows?
|cow pl f def||with||what sg n interr||acc 3pl clt||feed 2pl impf I|
87 (a) [3:09] Hay from corn [which] here we call “misirlik”. We gave them cornstalk feed.
|hay sg n||from||corn sg f def med||this sg n med adj||corn sg m||acc m 3sg clt||call 1pl pres I||corn sg n adj||acc 3pl clt||feed 1pl impf I|
88 (a) [3:14] They didn't get much to eat then. There wasn't a whole lot.
|and||more||little adv||then adv||acc refl clt||feed 3pl impf I||more adv||impf neg exist||very adv||much adv|
89 (VZh) For the winter period, you have to gather a lot of –
|for||winter sg n adj||time sg n||must pres imprs||much adv||comp||gather 2sg pres P|
90 (a) [3:21] Hay, hay. We've got hay now. They returned the meadows to me, we have [that].
|hay sg n||hay sg n||have 1pl pres I||now adv||hay sg n||return 3pl aor P||dat refl clt||acc 1sg clt||meadow pl f def med||have 1pl pres I|
91 (a) [3:26] [But] our gardens – this regulation came [into force] and they took it all,
|but||garden pl f def med||dat 1sg clt||dat 1pl||enter 3sg aor P||regulation sg f||nom 3pl||acc n 3sg clt||take 3pl aor P||everything sg n|
92 (a) [3:30] and built houses [there]. We're very embittered. Us especially –
|house pl f||build 3pl aor P||many adv||1pl pres cop clt||
||embitter pl P.part P||nom 1pl||especially adv|
93 (a) [3:35] they took everything away from me.
|that pl dist adj||everything sg n def||dat 1sg clt||acc n 3sg clt||take 3pl aor P|
94 (VZh) [But] now, didn't they give it back?
|now adv||neg||acc n 3sg clt||interr clt||return 3pl aor P|
95 (a) [3:39] Well, [there's] this regulation. The state's not returning [our land] the way it is now.
|disc||and||in||that sg f dist adj||regulation sg f||acc n 3sg clt||neg||return 3pl pres I||state sg f def med||as sg n interr||3sg pres cop clt||now adv|
96 (a) [3:43] We're waiting, but nothing is happening. As I said, we're very embittered.
|wait 1pl pres I||nothing sg n||neg||happen 3sg pres I||as||nom 1sg||dat 2sg clt||say 1sg pres I||embitter pl P.part P||1pl pres cop clt||very adv|
97 (a) [3:47] We don't have [our] gardens. There's a lot of meadow but we don't have gardens.
|garden pl f||not.have 1pl pres I||meadow pl f||many adv||pres exist||but||garden pl f||not.have 1pl pres I|
98 (a) [3:50] [Like] I told you, they then [went and] built houses and stuff. Shameless ones!
|dat 2sg clt||say 1pl pres I||and||build 3pl pres P||house pl f||ost||such pl med adj||then med adv||shameless.one pl m|
99 (a) [3:55] They should be ashamed of themselves for building what they did. At the least
|comp||acc 3pl clt||3sg pres cop clt||neg||shame adv||rel dist||3pl pres aux clt||build pl L.part P||at.least adv|
100 (a) [3:57] they could have given the remainder to me, but even that
|rel dist||3sg pres aux clt||remain sg n L.part P||comp||dat refl clt||dat 1sg clt||acc n 3sg clt||give 3pl pres P||but||and||acc n 3sg|
101 (a) [3:59] they won't give me. They plant it now [and say] “The state gave it to me” !
|neg||give 3pl pres I||nom 3pl||dat refl clt||acc n 3sg clt||sow 3pl pres I||now adv||state sg f def med||dat 1sg clt||acc n 3sg clt||3sg pres aux clt||give sg f L.part P|
102 (VZh) With a cow –what do you have to do in the morning when you get up?
|and||cow sg f def||morning sg f||what sg n interr||[...]||must pres imprs||comp||do 2sg pres P||when conj||arise 2sg pres P|
103 (a) [4:11] When I get up I throw it a horseblanket-ful of hay, and
|when conj||arise 1sg pres P||throw 1sg pres P||dat f 3sg clt||one sg n adj||one sg m adj||horse.cloth sg m||hay sg n||and|
104 (a) [4:14] I used to put together flour, whatever, some potatoes, whatever there is, into a pail,
|gather 1sg impf I||in||one sg f adj||pail sg f||flour sg n||what sg n rel med||3sg pres cop clt||potato pl m||some.kind sg n adj||what indcl rel||pres exist|
105 (a) [4:20] and I'll give that to them when I finish milking it.
|when inter.rel||acc f 3sg clt||milk 1sg pres P||fut||dat f 3sg clt||acc n 3sg clt||give 1sg pres P|
106 (RA) Hm.
107 (a) [4:24] So. And then –
|disc||and||then med adv|
108 (VZh) Do you have to wash something first, to clean it off?
|must pres imprs||interr clt||comp||acc f 3sg clt||wash 2sg pres I||thing sg n||comp||acc f 3sg clt||clean 2sg pres I|
109 (a) [4:27] That, yes; first of all [when] I go and get ready
|disc||and||that sg n dist adj||most||first adv||go 1sg pres P||and||acc f 3sg clt||put 1sg pres I|
110 (a) [4:30] to milk [the cow], I wash its udder, I'll ge- a cloth
|comp||acc f 3sg clt||milk 1sg pres I||wash 1sg pres P||dat f 3sg clt||udder sg n def med||fut||
||to||towel sg m|
111 (a) [4:33] and wring it out, and start to milk it. I put down a little stool
|and||wring 1sg pres P||acc m 3sg clt||and||begin 1sg pres P||comp||acc f 3sg clt||milk 1sg pres I||put 1sg pres I||dat refl clt||small.chair sg m|
112 (a) [4:37] and I milk it with both hands. I was [there],
|and||dat refl clt||acc f 3sg clt||milk 1sg pres I||with||two f def prox||hand pl f||nom 1sg||1sg pres aux clt||sit sg f L.part I|
113 (a) [4:40] as a milkmaid in the cooperative farm for seven years. In that farm down below,
|in||T.K.Z.S. sg n def med||milkmail sg f||seven||year pl f||in||
||below adv||this sg f med adj||farm sg f|
114 (a) [4:44] [that's where] I sat when we joined the cooperative farm. What [else] can you do?
|sit 1sg impf I||when inter.rel||enter 1pl aor P||in||T.K.Z.S sg n||again adv||what sg n interr||fut||do 2sg pres I|
115 (VZh) Were there [milking] machines there?
|there adv||with||machine sg f||interr clt||3sg impf cop|
116 (a) [4:50] No, by hand. I milked the cows [all] by hand.
|no||by.hand adv||by.hand adv||1sg pres aux clt||milk sg f L.part I||cow pl f def med|
117 (a) [4:51] Twenty cows for every one milkmaid.
|by||twenty||cow pl f||to||one sg f adj||milkmaid sg f|
118 (RA) Ooh, [that's] a lot.