Vŭglarovo 2

1 (GK)       [Let’s talk about] the old days. Tell us about the old days, what you remember.

disc
one sg n adj time sg n
comp
tell 2sg pres P
for
for
one sg n adj time sg n what sg n rel
dat refl clt
recall 2pl pres I

2 (GK)       What was it like, what was there? Because when this thing records [your] speech

how interr
3sg pres aux clt
be sg n L.part what interr
3sg pres aux clt
be sg n L.part because disc when conj
acc refl clt
record 3sg pres I disc speech sg m

3 (a) [0:06]      [laughter]

4 (GK)       it also is asking about the old days,

disc
acc refl clt
and
for
one sg n adj time sg n
acc refl clt
ask 3sg pres I

5 (a) [0:08]      [laughter]

6 (GK)       the old days, so to speak, before there were harvesters.

one sg n adj time sg n how interr
comp
say 1pl pres P
acc refl clt
before
comp
pres exist harvester pl m

7 (GK)       Before there were winnowers.

before
comp
pres exist winnower pl f

8 (a) [0:12]      How we used to work?

how interr
1pl pres aux clt
work pl L.part

9 (d) [0:14]      Oh!

excl

10 (GK)       How you used to work.

how interr
2pl pres aux clt
work pl L.part

11 (a) [0:14]      When I tell our kids [about this] they say, “Granny, that’s not true.”

nom 1sg
to
our pl def adj child pl n because tell 1sg pres I call 3pl pres I grandmother voc sg f neg
3sg pres cop clt
true sg n adj

12 (GK)       No, really?!

disc

13 (d) [0:17]      Oho.

excl

14 (a) [0:18]      All day we reaped, in [these] heavy clothes,

entire sg m adj day sg m 1pl pres aux clt reap pl L.part I with
fat pl adj shirt pl f

15 (c) [0:22]      Eh.

disc

16 (a) [0:22]      that rub your armpits [raw]. Mothers and grandmothers out cutting

rub 3pl pres I
acc refl clt
this pl med adj armpit pl f cut 3pl pres I grandmother pl f def mother pl f def

17 (a) [0:24]      with sickles, cutting and reaping all day …

sickle pl m def
and
reap 3pl pres I entire sg m adj day sg m

18 (c) [0:26]      Because all [our clothing] was hand-woven.

because 3sg impf cop everything sg n adj weave sg n P.part I

19 (a) [0:27]      … in the heat. You come back and there’s no place to wash [except] in the river.

heat sg m return 2sg pres P
acc refl clt
neg exist where interr
comp
acc refl clt
wash 2sg pres P
in
river sg f def

20 (a) [0:30]      We go and wash, then go to bed together with ash [that didn’t get washed off].

go 1pl pres I wash 1pl pres P
acc refl clt
lie.down sg imv I with
ash sg m def everything sg n adj together adv

21 (c) [0:34]      [laughter]

22 (a) [0:34]      That’s how it was in the old days.

thus med adv 3sg impf cop one sg n adj time sg n

23 (GK)       Uh huh.

bkch

24 (a) [0:35]      Then [in] the threshing field, all day threshing these –

later adv threshing.field pl m again adv thresh sg imv I entire sg m adj day sg m this pl med adj

25 (d) [0:37]      With the threshing board [unintelligible]

with
threshing.board sg f def

26 (a) [0:38]      You don’t remember …

nom 2pl
neg
remember 2pl pres I
interr clt

27 (d) [0:38]      That’s how it was.

thus med adv
3sg pres cop clt

28 (a) [0:39]      … this [sort of] thing?

this sg n med adj thing sg n

29 (GK)       No, I – very vaguely. I just vaguely remember that.

no nom 1sg completely adv muddy adv
with
thus adv vaguely adv
dat refl clt
recall 1sg pres I

30 (a) [0:42]      Ahh. All day long, the threshing boards!

excl
entire sg m adj day sg m threshing board pl f def

31 (c) [0:44]      With the threshing boards.

with
threshing board pl f

32 (d) [0:44]      How old are you?

nom 2sg how.many interr years.old sg m adj
2sg pres cop clt

33 (GK)       Well, I was [born] in [nineteen] fifty-eight …

disc
nom 1sg 1sg pres cop clt fifty
and
eighth sg f adj

34 (a) [0:46]      Two boards –

two sg f board pl f

35 (GK)       … and he [was born] in [nineteen] sixty-two.

nom m 3sg sixty
and
second sg m adj

36 (a) [0:48]      two boards, and underneath flintstones hammered on,

two sg f board pl f
and
below adv flintstone pl m hammer.on pl P.part P

37 (b) [0:49]      [unintelligible] the old days.

for
one sg n adj time sg n

38 (a) [0:51]      and we sit at the threshing board, with oxen harnessed, and thresh all day like that

and
thus med adv sit 1pl pres I
at
threshing.board sg f def ox pl m def harness pl P.part P
and
thresh 1pl pres I thus med adv entire sg m adj day sg m

39 (a) [0:56]      until the straw is all ground and [all] that turns into grain.

until conj
comp
grind 3sg pres P straw sg f
comp
become 3sg pres P this sg n med adj grain sg n

40 (b) [0:58]      You gather up a stack of straw –

nom 2sg
comp
gather 2sg pres I stack sg f straw sg f def

41 (a) [1:00]      That's right.

disc
thus med adv

42 (b) [1:00]      and winnow it by hand [unintelligible]

and
winnow 2sg pres I
by
hand sg f

43 (c) [1:01]      There’s this winnower, and you winnow [with] it.

and
winnower sg f pres exist
and
acc n 3sg clt
winnow 3sg pres I

44 (b) [1:02]      – by hand, with a winnower

by
hand sg f winnower sg f def

45 (c) [1:02]      The kernels winnow out –

winnow.out 3sg pres I grain sg n def

46 (a) [1:04]      Again [unintelligible]

again adv
acc refl clt

47 (b) [1:04]      It was terribly hard [work].

big pl adj torment pl f 3sg impf cop difficult adv

48 (GK)       But wait. How did you – when you go to the fields,

but
no how interr
dat refl clt
disc when conj go 2pl pres P
to
field sg f def

49 (GK)       how did you arrange yourselves? What did you have?

how interr
acc refl clt
arrange 2pl impf I what sg n interr have 2pl impf I

50 (b) [1:08]      You go like this, and you reap with the sickle (we called them sickles) …

walk 2sg pres I thus med adv
and
reap 2sg pres I with
sickle sg m def sickle pl m
dat m 3sg clt
call 1pl impf I

51 (d) [1:11]      You reap! You grab a –

with
hand sg f reap 2sg pres I
adrs
grasp 2sg pres I one sg m adj

52 (b) [1:12]      … all lined up.

in
row sg m

53 (a) [1:12]      [You work] a section, you take a single bed …

reaping.track sg m thus med adv grasp 2sg pres I one sg f adj bed sg f

54 (d) [1:13]      One section.

one sg f adj bed sg f

55 (a) [1:14]      … of grain. You reap, put down handfuls, go back. Then you gather [it into] sheaves

grain sg n
and
reap 2sg pres I
and
put 2sg pres I handful pl f return 2sg pres P
acc refl clt
after adv sheaf pl m gather 2sg pres I

56 (a) [1:18]      And then you pile them by five, six sheaves, by nine …

again adv
acc 3pl clt
pile 2sg pres I
by
five six sheaf ct m nine

57 (b) [1:20]      Cruciform, like this, so they won’t get wet …

in
cross pl m thus med adv
comp
neg
acc 3pl clt
pour 3sg pres I/P

58 (a) [1:21]      … like this, like a cross, so they don’t take on moisture.

thus prox adv
in
cross sg m
comp
neg
acc 3pl clt
moisten 3pl pres I and

59 (b) [1:24]      … from the rain.

from
rain sg m def

60 (a) [1:24]      And then we take these sheaves to the threshing floor, and put them in big piles.

later
acc 3pl clt
lift 1pl pres I again adv this pl med adj sheaf pl m
and
on
threshing.floor sg m def lay 3pl pres I big pl adj pile pl f

61 (GK)       Yes.

yes

62 (a) [1:28]      And then we would thresh.

again adv thresh 1pl pres I

63 (b) [1:29]      And you take [them] to the threshing floor …

later adv take.down 2sg pres I disc
to
threshing.floor sg m def

64 (GK)       A threshing floor. What is this “threshing floor”?

threshing.floor sg m def what sg n interr
3sg pres cop clt
this sg n adj threshing.floor sg m def

65 (b) [1:32]      … you put [them on] the threshing floor.

put 2sg pres I threshing.floor sg m def

66 (a) [1:33]      Well, it’s a place.

disc
place sg n thus med adv

67 (c) [1:33]      A threshing floor –

threshing.floor sg m
for

68 (a) [1:34]      Like a small encircled area, a square

like flat.space sg f
adrs
square sg m

69 (b) [1:35]      Listen now,

listen sg imv I now adv

70 (GK)       Uh huh.

bkch

71 (a) [1:36]      It’s a big [space]. We call that a threshing area.

big sg m adj nom 1pl
dat m 3sg clt
call 1pl impf I threshing.field pl m

72 (c) [1:38]      The threshing area – because it’s oval …

threshing.field sg m because as oval sg n adj thus med adv

73 (a) [1:39]      Ah.

disc

74 (c) [1:40]      … oval-like.

oval sg n adj

75 (GK)       Uh huh.

bkch

76 (a) [1:40]      And we’d lay this grain down. We lay it down like this …

and
lay.down 1pl pres I this sg n med adj grain sg n thus med adv
ost
thus med adv
acc n 3sg clt
lay.down 1pl pres I

77 (c) [1:42]      Then you begin, you untie it all

begin 2sg pres I after adv
and
acc refl clt
untie 3sg pres I this sg n med adj

78 (d) [1:44]      … lined up together.

one sg n adj
to
other sg n adj

79 (b) [1:45]      You untie the sheaves, and …

untie 2sg pres I sheaf pl m def
and

80 (c) [1:45]      [unintelligible] a little

little adv

81 (b) [1:46]      … then you attach the threshing board and you drive the oxen –

then adv put 2sg pres P threshing.board sg f def
and
drive.in 2sg pres P ox pl m def

82 (GK)       Uh huh. And how do you make a threshing floor? How is it made?

bkch
and
how interr
acc refl clt
make 3sg pres I threshing.floor sg m how interr
acc refl clt
make 3sg pres I

83 (GK)       Can any place become a threshing floor?

each sg n adj place sg n
interr clt
become 3sg pres I threshing.floor sg m

84 (b) [1:52]      Not any place will do.

each sg n adj place sg n
neg
become 3sg pres I

85 (a) [1:52]      Oh no, that won’t do.

disc
neg
become 3sg pres I

86 (d) [1:53]      Each one in his own yard.

each sg m adj
in
yard sg m def
dat refl clt

87 (a) [1:53]      It has to be level, you have to roll it [flat].

must pres imprs
comp
3sg pres cop clt
flat sg n adj
and
fut
acc n 3sg clt
roll 2sg pres I

88 (b) [1:56]      Each in his own yard, each in his own yard.

each sg m adj
in
yard sg m def
dat refl clt
each sg m adj
in
yard sg m def
dat refl clt

89 (d) [1:56]      Each one did it in his own yard.

each sg m adj
in
yard sg m def
dat refl clt
3sg impf cop

90 (a) [1:57]      You’ll sprinkle it with water and then [put] straw …

water sg f fut
acc n 3sg clt
sprinkle 2sg pres P
and
straw sg f

91 (b) [1:59]      And straw ...

and
straw sg f

92 (a) [1:59]      … so as to roll it [flat].

and
acc n 3sg clt
roll 2sg pres I

93 (b) [2:00]      … [is worked] with a roller. By rollers.

and
with
roller sg n
on
roller pl n

94 (a) [2:01]      Rollers [laughter]

roller pl n

95 (GK)       Can I ask you please to talk –

only adv
fut
acc 2pl clt
beg 1sg pres I
comp
speak 2sg pres P

96 (d) [2:03]      where – where there – on this roller there were these pins …

ost
where interr
ost
where interr
3sg pres cop clt
this sg n prox adj roller sg n 3sg impf cop
and
pres exist pin pl f

97 (b) [2:05]      The same one. [Pieces] of iron [that] cut.

disc same sg n def adj disc
such sg n adj something sg n iron pl n
acc n 3sg clt
cut 3pl pres I

98 (d) [2:06]      … of iron. And then you harness up the oxen …

iron pl adj
and
harness 2sg pres P ox pl m def

99 (a)       That's right.

thus med adv
3sg pres cop clt

100 (d) [2:10]      … with a yoke. And it goes along, it rolls,

pres exist with
yoke sg m def
and
nom m 3sg
fut
walk 3sg pres I
acc refl clt
roll 3sg pres I

101 (d) [2:10]      and the grain –

and
with
this sg n med adj grain sg n def

102 (b) [2:13]      [It does this] to crush [the field] …

fut
trample 3sg pres P

103 (c)       [It] crushes [it].

trample 3sg pres P

104 (b)       … so it all gets flat.

and
comp
become 3sg pres P flat sg n

105 (GK)       … to speak one at a time? Because everything gets recorded

comp
speak 2pl pres I one sg m adj after other sg m adj because here adv everything sg n adj
acc refl clt
record 3sg pres I

106 (GK)       all at once and afterwards I …

in
pile sg m
and
nom 1sg after adv

107 (c) [2:18]      Oh! You’re recording!

disc
disc nom 2sg record 2sg pres I

108 (GK)       … and afterwards I won’t be able to …

and
nom 1sg after adv
neg
can 1sg pres I
comp

109 (d) [2:19]      Well, he’s recording. I – you all – Did you understand?

disc
record 3sg pres I nom 1sg nom 2pl
neg
[...]
understand 2pl aor P
interr clt

110 (GK)       … and later I won’t …

and
nom 1sg after adv fut neg

111 (a) [2:21]      I see it, this thing is going around. [laughter]

nom 1sg look 1sg pres I this sg n med adj
acc refl clt
revolve 3sg pres I

112 (GK)       … later I won’t be able to transcribe it because when people talk

fut neg
comp
can 1sg pres I after adv
comp
acc n 3sg clt
take.down 1sg pres P because when conj speak 3pl pres I

113 (GK)       all at once I won’t be able to understand.

all pl def adj
and
fut neg
comp
can 1sg pres I
comp
understand 1sg pres I

114 (a) [2:27]      Well, that’s right.

disc
disc
thus med adv
3sg pres cop clt

115 (c) [2:25]      Now I get it, you’re recording us, and we all rushed in at once.

disc
now adv call 1sg pres I
that conj
acc 1pl clt
record 2sg pres I for.this sg n med adj
acc refl clt
rush 1pl aor P at.once adv

116 (GK)       Ah no [worry]! [laughter] There’ll be room for all [of you]! [laughter]

disc
no
all adv
fut
pres exist place sg n
for
all pl def adj

117 (a) [2:34]      [laughter]

118 (GK)       [There’s] tape. There’s [lots of] tape! [laughter]

tape sg f tape sg f pres exist

119 (b) [2:37]      [Talking] with village folk.

with
village pl def adj
dat refl clt
people pl

120 (d) [2:39]      But I knew all along that it was recording …

disc nom 1sg nom 1sg understand 1sg aor P that conj record 3sg pres I already adv

121 (a) [2:42]      Hm.

bkch

122 (d) [2:42]      … and fell silent.

and
dat refl clt
be.silent 1sg pres I

123 (GK)       But there’s nothing secret about it –

disc
disc
disc neg exist nothing sg n secret sg n adj
in
this sg n adj with

124 (d) [2:46]      Hm.

bkch

125 (GK)       Don’t [you recall] I told you I would be recording you?

interr
dat 2sg clt
dat 2pl clt
tell 1sg aor P
that conj
fut
acc 2pl clt
record 1sg pres I

126 (c) [2:47]      So it’ll be heard, it’ll be heard, by –

comp
acc refl clt
hear 3sg pres P
comp
acc refl clt
hear 3sg pres P in.front.of

127 (a) [2:49]      We’re talking about how we used to do things in the old days, that’s all.

nom 1sg discuss 1pl pres I what sg n interr
1pl pres aux
experience pl L.part P one sg n adj time sg n this sg n med adj
3sg pres cop clt

128 (c) [2:53]      [About] the old days.

one sg n adj time sg n

129 (GK)       Right. And what does it mean to “lay down” the sheaves?

bkch
and
what sg n interr mean 3sg pres I when conj
[ … ]
acc refl clt
lay 3pl pres P sheaf pl m def

130 (GK)       Do you cut them, or not?

cut 3pl pres I
interr clt
acc refl clt
or
not

131 (a) [2:57]      No ...

no

132 (c) [2:57]      No.

no

133 (a) [2:58]      … there’s the threshing board, with these flints below. It goes around, all day long …

threshing.board sg f def
with
this pl med adj flintstone pl m below adv
and
nom f 3sg walk 3sg pres I circle 3sg pres I entire sg m adj day sg m

134 (b) [3:03]      [With] cattle – oxen– harnessed [to it]

livestock sg m def ox pl m def harness pl P.part P

135 (a) [3:04]      … until the straw becomes grain.

until
comp
become 3sg pres P straw sg f this sg n adj grain sg n

136 (d) [3:05]      I’m leaving now, O.K.?

interr set.off 1sg pres P
dat refl clt

137 (a) [3:07]      And we gather it up into a big pile, and there’s a winnower.

and
acc n 3sg clt
gather 1pl pres P
in
pile sg m big sg m adj and winnower sg f pres exist

138 (GK)       And if there’s no winnower?

if conj
pres neg exist winnower sg f

139 (a) [3:12]      Well then, there’s no way to winnow it. You can’t do it [only in] the wind –

disc
pres neg exist how interr
comp
acc n 3sg clt
winnow 1pl pres P
on
wind sg m def
neg
can pres imprs

140 (a) [3:14]      [what if] there’s no wind?

pres neg exist wind sg m

141 (GK)       Ah.

bkch

142 (a) [3:15]      How [else] to winnow the grain, each kernel? So we have a winnower.

how interr
comp
winnow 1pl pres P grain sg n def grain sg n def and nom 1pl have 1pl pres I winnower sg f

143 (a) [3:18]      We rotate like this and the grain falls out. Grain separates out,

thus med adv revolve 1pl pres I
and
this sg n med adj grain sg n dat refl clt flow 3sg pres I grain sg n def apart adv

144 (a) [3:21]      straw separates out, and the ears that are left, that separates out; it all falls out.

straw sg f def apart adv spike sg m rel
3sg pres aux clt
remain sg n L.part P nom m 3sg apart adv dat refl clt flow 3sg pres I

145 (a) [3:26]      and then once more, we winnow just the kernels, and then pour them –

and
dat refl clt
after adv still adv once adv only adv grain sg n def winnow 1pl pres P
and
acc n 3sg clt
pour 1pl pres I then adv

146 (GK)       Where?

where interr

147 (b) [3:31]      The barn.

barn sg m def

148 (a) [3:31]      In the barn. We had big compartments for that, made at home.

in
barn sg m def have 1pl impf I compartment pl m thus med adv big pl adj make pl P.part P at.home adv

149 (GK)       What’s this “compartment”?

what sg n interr
3sg pres cop clt
this sg n adj compartment sg m

150 (a) [3:35]      That’s where …

this sg n med adj rel

151 (c) [3:36]      Where you gather the grain.

rel gather 3sg pres I grain sg n def

152 (a) [3:36]      … we gather up the grain.

grain sg n def gather 1pl pres I

153 (d) [3:37]      Where the grain is kept.

rel
acc refl clt
preserve 3sg pres I grain sg n def

154 (a) [3:39]      It’s made – this big, built [with] four …

make sg n P.part P
ost
thus med adv big sg n adj build sg n P.part P four

155 (b) [3:41]      Fenced off with boards, you fence off [a place], like this, with boards …

with
board pl f partition sg n P.part P partition pl f make sg n P.part P thus med adv
with
board pl f

156 (a) [3:43]      … fenced off with boards.

and
with
board pl f thus med adv partition sg n P.part P

157 (b) [3:44]      … four or five compartment, that’s how we call it – a compartment [in the] barn.

four
interr clt
3pl pres cop clt
five compartment ct m thus med adv thus med adv
dat m 3sg clt
say 1pl pres I nom 1pl compartment sg m barn sg m

158 (GK)       Aha.

bkch

159 (b) [3:47]      and it’s fenced off. You pour [the grain] in there, [in] separate [areas].

and
partition sg n P.part P
and
there adv pour 2sg pres I this sg n adj
dat refl clt
put 2sg pres P other sg n def adj grain sg n

160 (b) [3:51]      The barley by itself, the red wheat by itself – into the different types of grain.

barley sg m def separately adv red.wheat sg f def separately adv interr
in
variety pl m interr grain pl n def

161 (b) [3:54]      And you put [them] separately so you always know [what is what] when you grind.

and
separately adv put 2sg pres I
and
all adv know 2sg pres I when inter.rel grind 2sg pres I

162 (b) [3:57]      You take it and grind it, [take it] from the barn, to this –

take.down 2sg pres P again adv grind 2sg pres I there adv from.there adv
from
barn sg m def there adv
from
disc

163 (b) [4:00]      and you grind it at the mill. And that’s your grain for food.

and
grind 2sg pres P
at
mill sg f
and
this sg n med adj
dat 2sg clt
3sg pres cop clt
grain sg n def
for
food sg f

164 (b) [4:03]      What you got down at the mill was for bread.

for
bread sg m 3sg impf cop this sg n med adj this sg n med adj produce 2sg pres P
at
mill sg f

165 (a) [4:06]      That was [for] bread.

this sg n med adj 3sg impf cop bread sg m def

166 (b) [4:06]      You go to grind it,

go 2sg pres P grind 2sg pres P
dat refl clt

167 (GK)       Uh huh.

bkch

168 (b) [4:08]      and the women knead [bread] back home, and not –

and
woman pl f def knead 3pl pres I at.home adv
and
not

169 (a) [4:09]      We [are the ones who] used to knead [the bread].

nom 1pl
dat refl clt
knead 1pl impf I

170 (b) [4:11]      At home.

at.home adv

171 (GK)       Of course.

clearly adv

172 (b) [4:11]      [with] flour [that you get] when you go to the mill,

flour sg n def go 2sg pres P
to
mill sg f def

         [Let’s talk about] the old days. Tell us about the old days, what you remember.


         What was it like, what was there? Because when this thing records [your] speech


         [laughter]


         it also is asking about the old days,


         [laughter]


         the old days, so to speak, before there were harvesters.


         Before there were winnowers.


         How we used to work?


         Oh!


         How you used to work.


         When I tell our kids [about this] they say, “Granny, that’s not true.”


         No, really?!


         Oho.


         All day we reaped, in [these] heavy clothes,


         Eh.


         that rub your armpits [raw]. Mothers and grandmothers out cutting


         with sickles, cutting and reaping all day …


         Because all [our clothing] was hand-woven.


         … in the heat. You come back and there’s no place to wash [except] in the river.


         We go and wash, then go to bed together with ash [that didn’t get washed off].


         [laughter]


         That’s how it was in the old days.


         Uh huh.


         Then [in] the threshing field, all day threshing these –


         With the threshing board [unintelligible]


         You don’t remember …


         That’s how it was.


         … this [sort of] thing?


         No, I – very vaguely. I just vaguely remember that.


         Ahh. All day long, the threshing boards!


         With the threshing boards.


         How old are you?


         Well, I was [born] in [nineteen] fifty-eight …


         Two boards –


         … and he [was born] in [nineteen] sixty-two.


         two boards, and underneath flintstones hammered on,


         [unintelligible] the old days.


         and we sit at the threshing board, with oxen harnessed, and thresh all day like that


         until the straw is all ground and [all] that turns into grain.


         You gather up a stack of straw –


         That's right.


         and winnow it by hand [unintelligible]


         There’s this winnower, and you winnow [with] it.


         – by hand, with a winnower


         The kernels winnow out –


         Again [unintelligible]


         It was terribly hard [work].


         But wait. How did you – when you go to the fields,


         how did you arrange yourselves? What did you have?


         You go like this, and you reap with the sickle (we called them sickles) …


         … all lined up.


         [You work] a section, you take a single bed …


         One section.


         … of grain. You reap, put down handfuls, go back. Then you gather [it into] sheaves


         And then you pile them by five, six sheaves, by nine …


         Cruciform, like this, so they won’t get wet …


         … like this, like a cross, so they don’t take on moisture.


         … from the rain.


         And then we take these sheaves to the threshing floor, and put them in big piles.


         Yes.


         And then we would thresh.


         And you take [them] to the threshing floor …


         A threshing floor. What is this “threshing floor”?


         … you put [them on] the threshing floor.


         Well, it’s a place.


         A threshing floor –


         Like a small encircled area, a square


         Listen now,


         Uh huh.


         It’s a big [space]. We call that a threshing area.


         The threshing area – because it’s oval …


         Ah.


         … oval-like.


         Uh huh.


         And we’d lay this grain down. We lay it down like this …


         Then you begin, you untie it all


         … lined up together.


         You untie the sheaves, and …


         [unintelligible] a little


         … then you attach the threshing board and you drive the oxen –


         Uh huh. And how do you make a threshing floor? How is it made?


         Can any place become a threshing floor?


         Not any place will do.


         Oh no, that won’t do.


         Each one in his own yard.


         It has to be level, you have to roll it [flat].


         Each in his own yard, each in his own yard.


         Each one did it in his own yard.


         You’ll sprinkle it with water and then [put] straw …


         And straw ...


         … so as to roll it [flat].


         … [is worked] with a roller. By rollers.


         Rollers [laughter]


         Can I ask you please to talk –


         where – where there – on this roller there were these pins …


         … of iron. And then you harness up the oxen …


         That's right.


         … with a yoke. And it goes along, it rolls,


         and the grain –


         [It does this] to crush [the field] …


         [It] crushes [it].


         … so it all gets flat.


         … to speak one at a time? Because everything gets recorded


         all at once and afterwards I …


         Oh! You’re recording!


         … and afterwards I won’t be able to …


         Well, he’s recording. I – you all – Did you understand?


         … and later I won’t …


         I see it, this thing is going around. [laughter]


         … later I won’t be able to transcribe it because when people talk


         all at once I won’t be able to understand.


         Well, that’s right.


         Now I get it, you’re recording us, and we all rushed in at once.


         Ah no [worry]! [laughter] There’ll be room for all [of you]! [laughter]


         [laughter]


         [There’s] tape. There’s [lots of] tape! [laughter]


         [Talking] with village folk.


         But I knew all along that it was recording …


         Hm.


         … and fell silent.


         But there’s nothing secret about it –


         Hm.


         Don’t [you recall] I told you I would be recording you?


         So it’ll be heard, it’ll be heard, by –


         We’re talking about how we used to do things in the old days, that’s all.


         [About] the old days.


         Right. And what does it mean to “lay down” the sheaves?


         Do you cut them, or not?


         No ...


         No.


         … there’s the threshing board, with these flints below. It goes around, all day long …


         [With] cattle – oxen– harnessed [to it]


         … until the straw becomes grain.


         I’m leaving now, O.K.?


         And we gather it up into a big pile, and there’s a winnower.


         And if there’s no winnower?


         Well then, there’s no way to winnow it. You can’t do it [only in] the wind –


         [what if] there’s no wind?


         Ah.


         How [else] to winnow the grain, each kernel? So we have a winnower.


         We rotate like this and the grain falls out. Grain separates out,


         straw separates out, and the ears that are left, that separates out; it all falls out.


         and then once more, we winnow just the kernels, and then pour them –


         Where?


         The barn.


         In the barn. We had big compartments for that, made at home.


         What’s this “compartment”?


         That’s where …


         Where you gather the grain.


         … we gather up the grain.


         It’s made – this big, built [with] four …


         Fenced off with boards, you fence off [a place], like this, with boards …


         … fenced off with boards.


         … four or five compartment, that’s how we call it – a compartment [in the] barn.


         Aha.


         and it’s fenced off. You pour [the grain] in there, [in] separate [areas].


         The barley by itself, the red wheat by itself – into the different types of grain.


         And you put [them] separately so you always know [what is what] when you grind.


         You take it and grind it, [take it] from the barn, to this –


         and you grind it at the mill. And that’s your grain for food.


         What you got down at the mill was for bread.


         That was [for] bread.


         You go to grind it,


         Uh huh.


         and the women knead [bread] back home, and not –


         We [are the ones who] used to knead [the bread].


         At home.


         Of course.


         [with] flour [that you get] when you go to the mill,


1 (GK)       а едно̀ врѐме да рəска̀жеш зə зə едно̀ врѐме кво̀т си спо̀мн’əте

2 (GK)       къ̀к е било̀ што̀ е било̀ што̀то то̀ кəт сə запѝсва тако̀ва го̀вор

3 (a) [0:06]       [смях]

4 (GK)       то̀ сə и зə едно̀ врѐми са пѝта

5 (a) [0:08]       [смях]

6 (GK)       едно̀ врѐме къ̀к да речѐм се предѝ да ѝма комба̀йни

7 (GK)       предѝ да ѝма вийа̀чки

8 (a) [0:12]       къ̀к сме ра̀бутили

9 (d) [0:14]       оу

10 (GK)       къ̀к сте ра̀бутили

11 (a) [0:14]       йа̀ нə на̀ште деца̀ о̀т’ рəспра̀вəм ɨкəт ба̀бо н’ѐ е в’а̀рну

12 (GK)       əмѝ

13 (d) [0:17]       оhо

14 (a) [0:18]       ца̀л’ д’е̇̀н см’е ж’ѐнəли сəз деб’е̇̀ли рɨ̀зɨ

15 (c) [0:22]       ѐ

16 (a) [0:22]       прɨтрɨ̀вəт сə тѝə мɨ̀шнɨцɨ р’е̇̀жəд ба̀бите ма̀йките

17 (a) [0:24]       сəрпвѐту и жѐнəт ца̀л’ д’е̇̀н’

18 (c) [0:26]       што̀т б’е̇̀ше сɨ̀чку тка̀ену

19 (a) [0:27]       п’е̇̀к въ̀рниш сə нѝмə кəд’ѐ дə сə умɨ̀еш ф р’а̀кəтə

20 (a) [0:30]       ѝдем умɨ̀йм’ə сə л’а̀гəй сəс пепелъ̀ сɨ̀чкут за̀əну

21 (c) [0:34]       [смях]

22 (a) [0:34]       тəка̀ б’ѐше əно̀ вр’е̇̀м’е

23 (GK)       əhə

24 (a) [0:35]       с’е̇̀тне həрма̀ни па̀к въ̀рши ца̀л’ д’ѐн’ т’ѐə

25 (d) [0:37]       з дика̀н’əтə [неразбрано]

26 (a) [0:38]       вѝй ни по̀мнит’е ли

27 (d) [0:38]       така̀ е

28 (a) [0:39]       тва̀ н’ѐшту

29 (GK)       нѐ а̀с сəвсѐм мъ̀тну с тəка̀ смъ̀тно си спо̀мн’əм

30 (a) [0:42]       о̀ ца̀л’ д’е̇̀н’ дика̀н’те

31 (c) [0:44]       сəз дика̀ни

32 (d) [0:44]       тѝ ко̀лку гудɨ̀шен си

33 (GK)       ми а̀с сəм педесѐ и о̀смə

34 (a) [0:46]       дв’е̇̀ дъ̀ски

35 (GK)       то̀й шейсѐ и фто̀ри

36 (a) [0:48]       дв’е̇̀ дъ̀ски и удо̀лу кр’е̇̀мене нəкува̀ни

37 (b) [0:49]       [неразбрано] за едно̀ врѐме

38 (a) [0:51]       и тəка̀ сəдɨ̀м нə дика̀н’əтə о̀лвет фпр’ѐгнəти и вəрш’ѐм тəка̀ ца̀л д’е̇̀н

39 (a) [0:56]       дəкъ̀д дə см’е̇̀л’и сла̀мə дə ста̀н’ тва̀ жɨ̀ту

40 (b) [0:58]       тѝ дə сəбɨ̀рəж купъ̀ сла̀мəтə

41 (a) [1:00]       а̀ тъ̀й

42 (b) [1:00]       че веиш на ръ̀кə [неразбрано]

43 (c) [1:01]       че вейа̀лкə ѝмə чи гу вейѐ

44 (b) [1:02]       нə ръ̀кə вейа̀лкəтə

45 (c) [1:02]       одв’а̀вə зəрно̀то

46 (a) [1:04]       па̀к се [неразбрано]

47 (b) [1:04]       гул’ѐми мъ̀ки б’ѐше т’ѐшку

48 (GK)       мə нѐ къ̀к си тəко̀вə кату ѝдете нə н’ѝвəтə

49 (GK)       къ̀к сə пудрѐждəхти кəкво̀ ѝмəхте

50 (b) [1:08]       вəрɨ̀ш тəка̀ и ж’ѐниш сəс сəрпъ̀ съ̀рпуи му ѝкəhме

51 (d) [1:11]       с рəкъ̀ ж’е̇̀ниж бə фа̀тəш əдɨ̀н

52 (b) [1:12]       на р’ѐт

53 (a) [1:12]       чəкъ̀м тəка̀ hа̀тəш инъ̀ л’а̀hə

54 (d) [1:13]       инъ̀ л’а̀hə

55 (a) [1:14]       жɨ̀ту и ж’е̇̀н’иш’ и ту̀р’əш рəко̀йки въ̀рнес сə по̀сл’е сно̀пе сəбɨ̀рəш

56 (a) [1:18]       па̀г ги тру̀пəш пу п’е̇̀т ше̇̀с сно̀пə д’е̇̀вет’

57 (b) [1:20]       нə кръ̀сци тəка̀ дə н’и гѝ нəл’о̀ə

58 (a) [1:21]       сəка̀ нə кръ̀с дə н’ гѝ ква̀с’əт ɨ̀

59 (b) [1:24]       од дəждъ̀

60 (a) [1:24]       с’е̇̀тне г дɨ̀гəме па̀к тѝə сно̀п’е че нə əрма̀н’ə искла̀вəд гул’ѐми кəма̀рɨ

61 (GK)       дə

62 (a) [1:28]       па̀к вəрш’е̇̀йме

63 (b) [1:29]       сѐтн’е сва̀л’əш тəкъ̀уту нə арма̀н’ə

64 (GK)       hарма̀не какво̀ е ту̀й hарма̀не

65 (b) [1:32]       сла̀гəш арма̀н’ə

66 (a) [1:33]       əм м’а̀сту тəка̀

67 (c) [1:33]       hарман за

68 (a) [1:34]       кəт плушта̀ткə бе плушта̀т

69 (b) [1:35]       слу̀шəй сига̀

70 (GK)       əhə

71 (a) [1:36]       гул’а̀м нѝй му ѝкəhми həрма̀н’и

72 (c) [1:38]       həрма̀н’ ўо̀т’ кəт о̀блу тəка̀

73 (a) [1:39]       ъ̀

74 (c) [1:40]       о̀бəлку

75 (GK)       əhə

76 (a) [1:40]       и нəс’а̀дəме тва̀ жɨ̀ту тəка̀ е тəка̀ гу нəс’а̀дəме

77 (c) [1:42]       почвəш по̀сле тə сə рəзвъ̀рзувə тува̀

78 (d) [1:44]       едно̀ ду дру̀гу

79 (b) [1:45]       рəсвъ̀рзувəш сно̀пете че

80 (c) [1:45]       [неразбрано] ма̀лку

81 (b) [1:46]       тога̀ф ту̀риш дика̀н’əтə че фка̀рəш о̀лувет

82 (GK)       əhə и ка̀к са пра̀и hарма̀н ка̀к са пра̀и

83 (GK)       с’а̀ко м’а̀сто ли ста̀ва hарма̀н

84 (b) [1:52]       с’а̀ку м’а̀сту ни ста̀вə

85 (a) [1:52]       а не ста̀вə

86 (d) [1:53]       с’ѐки в дво̀рə си

87 (a) [1:53]       тр’а̀бвə дə е д’ӥ̀зну че зə гу тəрка̀л’əш

88 (b) [1:56]       с’ѐки у дво̀рə си с’ѐки у дво̀рə си

89 (d) [1:56]       с’ѐки у дво̀рə з б’ѐше

90 (a) [1:57]       уда̀ жə гу нəпръ̀скəш чи сла̀мə

91 (b) [1:59]       чи сла̀мə

92 (a) [1:59]       чи гу тəрка̀л’əш

93 (b) [2:00]       чи с кулиндро̀ нə кулиндра̀

94 (a) [2:01]       кулиндра̀ [смях]

95 (GK)       са̀мо ше вə мо̀л’а да гово̀рите

96 (d) [2:03]       ѐ кəд’ѐ ѐ кəд’ѐ е сва̀ кул’ендро̀ б’ѐше че ѝмə ч’увѝйки

97 (b) [2:05]       əhə съ̀штуту ъ̀ тəко̀с н’ѐшту жəлза̀тə го рѐжəт

98 (d) [2:06]       же̇̀л’езни че фпр’е̇̀гнеш о̀лувету

99 (a)       тəка̀ е

100 (d) [2:10]       ѝмə сəз бəндру̀кə че то̀й зə вəрɨ̀ сə тəрка̀л’ə

101 (d) [2:10]       и с тва̀ жɨ̀тту

102 (b) [2:13]       зə ума̀чкə …

103 (c)       ума̀чкə

104 (b)       и дə ста̀не д’у̀зну

105 (GK)       да гово̀рите едѝн след дру̀к што̀то ту̀ка сѝчку се запѝсва

106 (GK)       на ку̀п и а̀с по̀сле

107 (c) [2:18]       ə əмə тɨ̀ зəпɨ̀свəш

108 (GK)       и а̀с по̀сле не мо̀гə дə

109 (d) [2:19]       əм зəпɨ̀свə йа̀ вѝй ни зə рəзбра̀hте ли

110 (GK)       и а̀с по̀сле н’а̀мə

111 (a) [2:21]       йа̀ гл’ѐдəм тва̀ сə вəртɨ̀ [смях]

112 (GK)       н’а̀мə да мо̀га по̀сле да го свал’ъ̀ што̀т кəд гуво̀рəт

113 (GK)       сѝчкити и н’а̀мə дə мо̀гə дə рəзбѝрəм

114 (a) [2:27]       ə ə тəка̀ е

115 (c) [2:25]       а сие̂̀ ɨ̀кəм че ни зəпɨ̀свəш зəтва̀ сə йу̀рнəhме утəднъ̀ш

116 (GK)       а не [смях]сѐ ше ѝма м’а̀сту за сѝчките [смях]

117 (a) [2:34]       [смях]

118 (GK)       лѐнтə лѐнтə ѝмə [смях]

119 (b) [2:37]       сəс с’е̇̀лцките си hо̀рə

120 (d) [2:39]       пəк йа̀ йа̀ рəзбра̀h ч’ə зəпɨ̀свə ѐйке

121 (a) [2:42]       мм

122 (d) [2:42]       и сə мъ̀л’чə

123 (GK)       əм че то̀ н’а̀мə нѝшту та̀йну ф тва̀ сəс

124 (d) [2:46]       мм

125 (GK)       нəлѝ ти ви ка̀зəh че шə вə зəпѝсвəм

126 (c) [2:47]       дə сə ч’у̀и дə сə ч’у̀и пре̇т

127 (a) [2:49]       нѝй рəспра̀йəме ко̀ сме пр’əка̀рəли əнно̀ вр’е̇̀ме тва̀ е

128 (c) [2:53]       ено̀ вр’е̇̀ме

129 (GK)       əмhəм и какво̀ зна̀чи кəту сə сə нəсəдъ̀т сно̀пите

130 (GK)       секъ̀т ли се или нѐ

131 (a) [2:57]       н’е̇̀

132 (c) [2:57]       нѐ

133 (a) [2:58]       дика̀н’əтə с т’е̇̀ə кре̇̀мене удо̀лу и т’а̀ вəрɨ̀ убика̀л’ə ца̀л’ д’е̇̀н’

134 (b) [3:03]       дубɨ̀тəкə ўо̀лвет пр’е̇̀гнети

135 (a) [3:04]       дукъ̀ту дə ста̀не сла̀мə тва̀ жɨ̀ту

136 (d) [3:05]       нəлѝ по̀йд’ам си

137 (a) [3:07]       чə к сəбер’е̇̀ме нə ку̀п гул’а̀м ч’е вейа̀лкə ѝмə

138 (GK)       ако н’а̀мə вейа̀лка

139 (a) [3:12]       əм н’е̇̀мə къ̀к дə г удве̇̀ем нə ветеръ̀ ни мо̀же

140 (a) [3:14]       н’е̇̀мə в’ѐт’ер

141 (GK)       əə

142 (a) [3:15]       къ̀к дə уве̇̀м жɨ̀тут зəрно̀ту пəк нѝе ѝмəме вейа̀лкə

143 (a) [3:18]       тəка̀ вəртɨ̀ме и тва̀ жɨ̀ту с’ т’ич’ѐ жɨ̀тут бəшка̀

144 (a) [3:21]       сла̀мəтə бəшка̀ кла̀с д’е̇̀т е уста̀нəлу то̀й бəшка̀ с’ т’ич’е̇̀

145 (a) [3:26]       и с’ по̀сле о̀ште енъ̀с са̀м зəрно̀т привѐеме и гу сɨ̀пвəме туга̀вə

146 (GK)       кəдѐ

147 (b) [3:31]       həмба̀р’е

148 (a) [3:31]       ф həмба̀р’е ѝмəйме г’о̀зве тəка̀ гул’ѐми нəпра̀ени фкъ̀шти

149 (GK)       кво̀ е тва̀ г’о̀с

150 (a) [3:35]       тва̀ д’е̇̀т

151 (c) [3:36]       д’ѐт сəбɨ̀рə зито̀ту̭

152 (a) [3:36]       жɨ̀тут сəбɨ̀рəме

153 (d) [3:37]       д’ѐт сə сəhрəн’а̀вə жɨ̀ту̭ту

154 (a) [3:39]       нəпра̀ену ѐ тəка̀ гул’а̀му изгрəд’ѐну ч’ѐтири

155 (b) [3:41]       сəз дъ̀ск’и прегрəд’ѐну прегра̀ди нəпра̀ену тəка з дъ̀ски

156 (a) [3:43]       и з дъ̀ск’и тəко̀ прегра̀дену

157 (b) [3:44]       ч’е̇̀тири ли сə п’е̇̀д г’о̀зə тəка̀ тəка̀ му ка̀звəме нѝй г’о̀з həмба̀р

158 (GK)       əhə̀

159 (b) [3:47]       и прегрəд’ѐну и та̀м сɨ̀пвəш тва̀ с ту̀р’əш дру̀гуту жито̀

160 (b) [3:51]       ечемɨ̀кə уд’ѐлну кəзəлџъ̀тə уд’ѐлну нəлѝ нə со̀ртуве нəлѝ зита̀тə

161 (b) [3:54]       и удѐлну сла̀гəш и с’ѐ зна̀еш га̀ м’е̇̀лиш

162 (b) [3:57]       сва̀лиш па̀к м’е̇̀лиш та̀м утта̀м ут əмба̀рə та̀м ут тəкъ̀уту

163 (b) [4:00]       и м’ѐлиш нə м’ѐлницə и тва̀ ти е жито̀т зə преhра̀нə

164 (b) [4:03]       зə hл’а̀б бѐш’е тва̀ тва̀ иска̀рəш нə м’ѐлницə

165 (a) [4:06]       тва̀ б’ѐше л’а̀бə

166 (b) [4:06]       ѝйш см’ѐлиш си

167 (GK)       əhə

168 (b) [4:08]       и ж’ѐн’те̏ м’ѐс’əт фкъ̀шти и нѐ

169 (a) [4:09]       нѝй си мѐс’əhме

170 (b) [4:11]       фкъ̀шти

171 (GK)       йа̀сно

172 (b) [4:11]       брəшно̀ту ѝдеш нə м’ѐлницəтə

Text copyright © 2011-2016 Ronelle Alexander and Vladimir Zhobov. Texts and other parts of the website may be copied only for non-commercial, research, or educational purposes, provided the source of the material is cited accordingly. Cited material may not include the entire website or substantial portions thereof.
Comments and questions may be addressed to bdlt@berkeley.edu.

Recommended Model for Citations

Bulgarian Dialectology as Living Tradition [2016] (http://www.bulgariandialectology.org, visited on 1 March 2016)
Babjak 1: 13-15. In: Bulgarian Dialectology as Living Tradition [2016] (http://www.bulgariandialectology.org, visited on 1 March 2016)

Text | by Dr. Radut