Oborište 1

1 (MM)       Tell me how you used to make bread in the olden days.

hort
comp
dat 1sg clt
say 2sg pres P
hes
how interr knead 2pl impf I bread sg m def nom 2pl one sg n adj time sg n

2 (a) [0:04]      What do you mean, how?

disc
how interr

3 (MM)       There weren’t [large outdoor] ovens, were there?

hes
impf neg exist outdoor.oven pl f interr here adv

4 (a) [0:07]      Well, no. We had ovens at home.

disc
pres neg exist have 1pl impf I
dat refl clt
at.home adv large.oven pl f

5 (MM)       Right –

thus adv

6 (a) [1:10]      At home. There was an oven at home, and it would take –

at.home adv at.home adv
dat refl clt
exist impf large.oven sg f
disc
take 3sg impf I

7 (a) [0:13]      we [can] bake seven or eight loaves of bread at a time. We light it,

by
seven
hes
eight bread ct m
and
bake 1pl pres P
dat refl clt
light 1pl pres P
acc f 3sg clt

8 (a) [0:18]      a wood fire, and sweep it out, then put the bread into it

with
wood pl n
and
dat refl clt
acc f 3sg clt
sweep 1pl pres P put 1pl pres I
dat refl clt
bread sg m def there adv

9 (a) [0:22]      in it with oven peels. It bakes, we take out the bread, eat [it], and then –

in
acc f 3sg
with
shovel pl f bake 3sg pres P
acc refl clt
extract 1pl pres P bread sg m def eat 1pl pres I
and
then adv

10 (MM)       And you – you [were the one who] baked [it]

nom 2sg nom 2sg
2sg pres aux clt
[ ... ]
[ ... ]
bake sg f L.part I

11 (a) [0:29]      I baked it. I [did] all these things, using the oven peel and such.

bake sg f L.part I 1sg pres aux clt such pl adj thing pl f
on
shovel sg f
with
thus adv 1sg pres aux clt

12 (MM)       O.K., but how do you make [the dough]?

disc
fine adv
and
how interr
fut
acc m 3sg clt
knead 2sg pres P
[…]

13 (a) [0:33]      Well, how do we make it?! I heat up [some] water, I sift out

disc
how interr
fut
acc m 3sg clt
knead 1pl pres P
fut
heat 1sg pres P water sg f def
and
fut
sift 1sg pres P

14 (a) [0:36]      the flour and – there was leavening – and I knead it with leavening

flour sg n def
and
and
leavening sg m
[ … ]
dat refl clt
exist impf
and
knead 1sg pres P
with
leavening sg m def

15 (a) [0:40]      and it rises. And and I separate it out into loaves,

and
nom m 3sg rise 3sg pres P
and
acc m 3sg clt
divide 1sg pres P
on
one f sg adj board sg f

16 (a) [0:43]      one by one on a board, and we take it and toss it

all adv
by
one sg m adj bread sg m
and
acc m 3sg clt
carry 1pl pres P
and
acc m 3sg clt
put 1pl pres P

17 (a) [0:47]      into the oven, and there it is.

in
large.oven sg f def
and
thus adv

18 (MM)       Yes –

yes

19 (a) [0:49]      And it bakes for –

and
bake 3sg pres I
acc refl clt
by

20 (MM)       And how do you know when it’s time to put it into the oven?

disc
how interr recognize 2sg pres I when interr must pres I imprs
comp
acc m 3sg clt
put 2sg pres P in
large.oven sg f def

21 (a) [0:54]      Oh, well, you know! It ferments, gets bubbles in it, like this. And

disc
disc
recognize 3sg pres I
acc refl clt
nom m 3sg
dat refl clt
rise 3sg pres P ferment 3sg pres P thus adv
and

22 (a) [0:57]      when it’s risen, I toss it into the oven and that’s that.

when conj rise 3sg pres P
and
nom 1sg
dat refl clt
acc m 3sg clt
put 1sg pres P in
large.oven sg f def
and
thus adv

23 (MM)       Yes.

yes

24 (a) [1:01]      I bake [it].

bake 1sg pres I
dat refl clt

25 (b) [1:01]      It’s been sitting in the kneading trough.

in
kneading.trough pl.t stand sg m L.part I

26 (a) [1:03]      Yes, the kneading trough. It rises in the kneading trough, and then it ri–

disc
kneading.trough pl.t nom m 3sg
dat refl clt
rise 3sg pres P
in
kneading.trough pl.t def after adv
[...]

27 (a) [1:06]      When I separate it out on the board, it has risen [nicely], and that’s all.

when conj
acc m 3sg clt
divide 1sg pres P
and
on
board sg f def rise 3sg pres I
and
thus adv

28 (MM)       Yes.

yes

29 (a) [1:10]      That’s how it was.

and
thus adv
3sg pres aux clt
be sg n L.part

30 (MM)       And every woman makes her own [bread]

and
each sg f adj woman sg f
dat refl clt
knead 3sg pres I

31 (a) [1:13]      Every woman used to make her own bread at home.

each sg f adj woman sg f
dat refl clt
knead 3sg impf I at.home adv bread sg m def

32 (MM)       Did you make any sort of bread without starter?

and
make 2pl impf I
interr clt
bread sg m
without
leavening sg m some.kind sg m adj

33 (a) [1:18]      Ah, no. Unleavened bread only when you bake it in those –

disc
no unleavened.bread sg f only adv when inter.rel
acc refl clt
bake 3sg pres I
in
that pl adj

34 (a) [1:20]      in this – [when it’s made] fresh. But otherwise –

in
this pl adj disc fresh sg n adj
but
otherwise adv

35 (MM)       Somewhere also in the outdoor oven?

and
somewhere adv again adv
in
outdoor.oven sg f def
interr clt

36 (a) [1:24]      Well, you can also bake it in the outdoor oven, but [usually], like now, in [indoor] ovens.

disc
nom f 3sg can pres imprs
and
in
outdoor.oven sg f def
but
when conj now adv
in
oven pl f def

37 (a) [1:27]      Otherwise we would heat up the baking dish

and
otherwise adv light 1pl impf I baking.dish sg f def

38 (MM)       Yes.

yes

39 (a) [1:30]      and put the bread into the baking dish, and cover it on top

and
in
baking.dish sg f def put 1pl pres P bread sg m def
and
cover 1pl pres P
acc m 3sg clt
above adv

40 (a) [1:34]      with ash and coals –

with
ash sg f with
coals sg f
and

41 (MM)       Do you have a baking dish – here?

disc
nom 2sg baking.dish sg f have 2sg pres I
interr clt
dat refl clt
here adv

42 (a) [1:38]      There used to be, but the baking dish broke. I don’t have [any] baking dish [now].

exist impf
but
acc refl clt
break 3sg aor I baking.dish sg f def
and
not.have 1sg pres I
neither
baking.dish sg f

43 (MM)       You don’t keep it, you don’t –

neg
acc f 3sg clt guard 2sg pres I
neg
acc f 3sg clt

44 (a) [1:42]      I haven’t kept it. [laughter]

neg
1sg pres aux clt
acc f 3sg clt
guard sg f L.part I

45 (MM)       Ahh –

disc

46 (a) [1:44]      I don’t need it. Why –

neg
dat 1sg clt need pres imprs why interr
3sg pres cop clt

47 (b) [1:45]      Where did you used to put that baking dish …

where interr
2sg pres aux clt
acc f 3sg clt
put sg f L.part I this sg f adj baking.dish sg f

48 (a) [1:47]      Well –

disc disc

49 (b) [1:47]      … with the dough [in it]?

with
dough sg n def

50 (a) [1:48]      Well, so, you light [a fire] in the hearth. There was a hearth,

disc
mean 3sg pres I lay 3sg pres P
acc refl clt
hearth sg m def disc
dat refl clt
exist impf hearth sg m

51 (a) [1:50]      there in front of the big oven, and we put it [the baking dish] in,

there adv before large.oven sg f def here adv 3sg impf cop
and
put 1pl pres P
acc n 3sg clt

52 (a) [1:54]      the baking dish heats up, and – and then we take out the baking dish

baking.dish sg f def
acc refl clt
light 3sg pres P
and
[...]
take.down 1pl pres P baking.dish sg f def

53 (a) [1:58]      and put in the quick bread, and that’s it.

and
put 1pl pres P quickbread sg f def
and
this sg n adj
3sg pres cop clt

54 (MM)       So then houses weren’t like these [now].

disc
hes
mean 3sg pres I
hes
house pl f def
neg
3pl impf cop like this pl adj

55 (MM)       They had hearths, right?

exist impf with
hearths pl m thus adv
interr clt

56 (a) [2:04]      They did, they did. But now we’ve made ourselves all –

exist impf exist impf
but
now adv
acc f 3sg clt
make 1pl aor P all adv

57 (a) [2:07]      we’ve gotten to be somewhat modern [laughter]

something sg n modern pl adj become 1pl aor P
and

58 (MM)       But this house of yours is old. How old is it?

but
this sg f adj house sg f your sg f def adj
3sg pres cop clt
old sg f adj
hes
and
how.much interr
3sg pres cop clt
old sg f adj

59 (c) [2:11]      I don’t know.

neg
know 1sg pres I

60 (a) [2:12]      Well, it was built in 1950.

disc
[...]
fiftieth sg f adj year f sg
3sg pres cop clt
make sg f P.part I

61 (MM)       1950. Ah! Then before that, in those old ones –

fifty
disc
mean 3sg pres I before this sg n adj in
hes
that pl adj old def pl adj

62 (a) [2:16]      It was built in 1950.

fiftieth sg f adj year f sg
3sg pres cop clt
make sg f P.part I

63 (MM)       In the older houses …

in
more old def pl adj house pl f

64 (a) [2:18]      Uh huh,

bkch

65 (MM)       … there would have been hearths.

3sg pres aux clt
L.part exist hearths pl m

66 (a) [2:19]      the older ones.

more old def pl adj

67 (MM)       But this one didn’t have a hearth, right?

but
this sg f adj neg
3sg pres aux clt
L.part exist hearth sg m thus adv
interr clt

68 (a) [2:24]      [laughter] Hey, hey, come on over, come on!

come sg imv P come sg imv P come sg imv P

69 (c) [2:25]      Come and sit down.

come sg imv P sit sg imv P

70 (a) [2:27]      Older, more like –

more old sg m adj more disc

71 (MM)       So you’ll tell us what houses were like in the old days [O.K.]?

and
nom 2sg
fut
dat 1pl clt
tell 2sg pres P what.kind pl adj 3pl impf cop
and
house pl f def one sg n adj time sg n

72 (a) [2:32]      Well, the houses of olden days –

disc
old.time pl adj house pl f

73 (MM)       Uh?

disc

74 (a) [2:34]      Old-fashioned houses! Each had one of – well, earthen fortification underneath

old.time pl adj house pl f with
by
one f sg adj such sg f adj below adv
or
embankment sg m

75 (a) [2:42]      and two rooms above. The house and what we called a “soba” –

and
two f room pl f above adv
and
house sg f
and
bedroom sg f
dat n 3sg clt
call 1pl impf I

76 (a) [2:45]      two rooms. Otherwise – later they started to make them

two f room pl f
and
again adv otherwise adv after adv take 3pl aor P
acc 3pl clt
make 3pl pres I

77 (a) [2:49]      with two stories: two rooms above and down below –

and
on
two m floor ct m
and
above adv two f bedroom pl f below adv

78 (a) [2:52]      what we called “zivnitsi” (basements).

basement pl m def
dat 3pl clt
call 1pl impf I again adv

79 (MM)       And what was in the basements?

disc
in
basement pl m def what sg n interr 3sg impf cop

80 (a) [2:55]      Well, you could live [there], and in one of them we used to put luggage

and
can impf imprs
comp
acc refl clt
live 3sg pres I
and
in
one sg m def adj baggage sg m
dat refl clt
put 1pl impf I

81 (a) [2:59]      and this and that.

this sg n adj that sg n adj

82 (MM)       Right -

thus adv

83 (a) [3:00]      Like – well, for food, you know –

thus adv
for
disc
for
food sg f adrs

84 (MM)       Yes –

yes

85 (a) [3:04]      [that’s where] they put [it].

put 3pl pres I

86 (MM)       What kinds of animals did you have in the old days?

and
what.kind sg f adj livestock sg f have 2pl impf I nom 2pl one sg n adj time sg n

87 (a) [3:07]      Well, sheep, cattle –

disc
sheep pl f cattle pl n

88 (MM)       So tell me [about] ...

hort
comp
dat 1sg clt
say 2sg pres P

89 (a) [3:10]      The she-

[...]

90 (MM)       ... the sheep. How did you pasture them, and why did you raise them?

sheep f def pl how interr
acc 3pl clt
pasture 2pl impf I
and
for
what sg n interr
acc 3pl clt
hes
look 2pl impf I acc 3pl

91 (a) [3:14]      Well –

disc

92 (MM)       Ah –

hes

93 (a) [3:17]      Sheep – we had sheep for – [we kept them] behind the –

sheep f def pl sheep f def pl
acc 3pl clt
1pl pres aux clt
disc behind
in
hes

94 (a) [3:22]      They stayed there in the sheep pen, they didn’t stay in the house.

in
pen sg f def there adv sit 3pl pres I this pl adj
neg
sit 3pl impf I at.home adv

95 (a) [3:25]      Our sheep did not stay in the house. I – my father and grandfather,

our pl def adj sheep pl f
acc refl clt
neg
3pl pres aux clt sit pl L.part I at.home adv nom 1sg grandfather sg m
and
dad sg m

96 (a) [3:29]      they looked after them in the sheep pen, they didn’t keep them at home.

this pl adj
3pl pres aux clt
acc 3pl clt
look pl L.part I
at
pen sg f def
neg
3pl pres aux clt
acc 3pl clt
keep pl L.part I at.home adv

97 (a) [3:32]      As for me, ever since I’ve come here I haven’t – I have one sheep

and nom 1sg here adv since conj 1sg pres aux clt come sg f L.part P
neg
1sg pres aux clt have 1sg pres I one f adj sheep sg f

98 (a) [3:37]      and it – I haven’t seen it for three or four years.

and
nom f 3sg
neg
1sg pres aux clt
acc f 3sg clt
see sg f L.part I three four year pl f

99 (a) [3:39]      All that time it’s been staying there with my brother.

all adv
3sg pres cop clt
by
brother acc sg m sit 3sg pres I there adv

100 (MM)       Yes.

yes

101 (c) [3:41]      Umhm

bkch

102 (a) [3:41]      I don’t know –

neg
know 1sg pres I

103 (MM)       O.K., then. Why did you raise and look after sheep? For –

disc
O.K. adv
for
what sg n interr
acc 3pl clt
look 2pl impf I nom 2pl sheep pl f
for

104 (a) [3:44]      Well for the wool, for the milk …

disc
for
wool sg f
for
milk sg n

105 (MM)       So tell me [about] milk, once –

hort
comp
dat 1sg clt
tell 2sg pres P milk sg n def when conj

106 (a) [3:47]      … for the cheese –

for
cheese sg n

107 (MM)       … once you’ve milked [the animal], how do you process …

when conj
acc n 3sg clt
milk 2sg pres P how interr
acc n 3sg clt
remake 2pl pres I

108 (a) [3:49]      Well –

disc

109 (MM)       … the milk?

milk sg n def

110 (a) [3:50]      we milk [the animal] and strain the milk, and when it’s cooled some –

milk sg n def
acc n 3sg clt
milk 1pl pres P
and
strain 1pl pres P
acc n 3sg clt
and
hes
little adv
and
hot sg n adj

111 (a) [3:54]      and take it and put rennet in it, it becomes cheese

and
acc n 3sg clt
take 1pl pres P
and
acc n 3sg clt
curdle 1pl pres P
and
become 3sg pres P cheese sg n

112 (a) [3:58]      and we strain it in strainers.

strain 1pl pres P
acc n 3sg clt
in
strainer pl f

113 (MM)       Right –

thus adv

114 (a) [4:00]      in molds –

in
mold pl m

115 (MM)       O.K., so you make white cheese

disc
O.K. adv
disc
make 2pl pres I cheese sg n

116 (d) [4:03]      [knock on door] Hello.

good sg m adj day sg m

117 (a) [4:04]      Oh hello! [laughter]

good sg m adj day sg m

118 (MM)       Hello.

good sg m adj day sg m

119 (d) [4:05]      What’s happening? Wait, let me begin [greeting each one] in turn.

what sg n interr become 3sg pres I wait imv I
comp
begin 1sg pres I in.order adv

120 (a) [4:06]      Right, in order!

disc
and
in.order adv

121 (MM)       Yes, in turn.

in.order adv
yes

122 (a) [4:07]      Greetings in turn.

healthy pl adj in.order adv

123 (MM)       Yes, yes. My name is Mladenov.

yes
yes
disc
Mladenov sg m name
acc refl clt
say 1sg pres I

124 (d) [4:11]      [I’m Mrs.] Skreshkina, have a seat!

Skreshkina sg f name sit sg imv P
dat refl clt

125 (MM)       Yes

yes

126 (a) [4:11]      Um

disc

127 (c) [4:12]      Just sit still, Granny will tell you [what’s going on].

sit sg imv P little adv grandmother f
fut
dat 2sg clt
say 3sg pres P

128 (d) [4:15]      Well, I’ll just stand.

disc
fut
stand 1sg pres P

129 (MM)       Ah, that’s it!

disc
thus adv

130 (a) [4:17]      Yes, you stand, like this one! You’re young, [laughter], we can

disc
stand sg imv P as ost nom m 3sg nom 2pl
2pl pres cop clt
young pl adj
and
nom 1pl can 1pl pres I

131 (MM)       [laughter]

132 (a) [4:20]      … stay [where we are]. It’s gotten to be like that.

comp
stand 1pl pres I
and
thus adv become 3sg aor P

133 (MM)       So wait now. You say you strain it –

wait imv I now adv call 2sg pres I strain 2sg pres P
acc n 3sg clt

134 (a) [4:25]      Well you str- after they milk the sheep then you strain the milk

disc
[...]
when conj
acc n 3sg clt
milk 3pl pres P
from
sheep f def pl strain 3sg pres P
acc refl clt
milk sg n def

135 (MM)       Into what?

in
what sg n interr

136 (a) [4:29]      Into what? Into pans, or into a big cauldron if there’s a lot of milk,

in
what sg n interr in
saucepan pl f
or
in
cauldron sg m big sg m when conj
3sg pres cop clt
much adv milk sg n def

137 (a) [4:36]      and you add rennet, and it ferments, and –

and
acc refl clt
put 3sg pres P rennet sg n
and
curdle 3sg pres P
acc refl clt
and

138 (MM)       Where do you get the rennet from?

from.where interr rennet sg n

139 (a) [4:39]      Well, we used to buy it. At one point they would make it from lambs –

disc
buy 1pl impf I
and
one.time adv
and
make 3pl impf I
from
hes
lamb pl n def

140 (a) [4:42]      when they slaughter lambs there was rennet. They would pound it and

when conj slaughter 3pl pres P lamb pl n exist impf rennet sg n
and
pound 3pl impf P acc n 3sg clt
and

141 (a) [4:46]      add salt, then stir it and you pour it into a bottle

put 3pl pres P salt sg f stir 3pl pres P
acc n 3sg clt
and
acc n 3sg clt
in
bottle sg n def
acc refl clt
pour 3sg pres P

142 (a) [4:49]      and make it with water and – That’s what you made cheese from.

with
water sg f
acc refl clt
make 3sg pres P
and
acc refl clt
from
acc n 3sg
acc refl clt
make.cheese 3sg impf I

143 (a) [4:52]      At one time my grandfather made cheese only with this sort of rennet.

one.time adv grandfather sg m my sg m adj make.cheese 3sg impf I all adv with
such sg n adj rennet sg n

144 (MM)       Right, right. And when –

bkch
thus adv
and
when conj
acc n 3sg clt

145 (a) [4:57]      And then [people] started doing it the European way, and there was –

and
after adv European adv take 3pl aor P
comp
exist impf

146 (MM)       Wait, wait – we haven’t finished [talking] about this [kind of] rennet.

wait imv I wait imv I
neg
1pl pres aux clt finish pl L.part P
by
this sg n adj with
rennet sg n def

147 (a) [5:01]      And –

and

148 (MM)       Where do you put it after that?

where interr
acc n 3sg clt
put 2sg pres I after this sg n adj

149 (a) [5:03]      In the milk, of course!

in
milk sg n def adrs

150 (MM)       No, I mean the cheese once [the fermenting] starts up.

no
when conj
cheese sg n def when conj
hes
acc refl clt
grasp 3sg pres P

151 (a) [5:07]      When the cheese gets started, you stir it with a sort of …

cheese sg n def
when conj
acc refl clt
grasp 3sg pres P
acc refl clt
stir 3sg pres P with
one f sg adj such sg f adj

152 (MM)       Right –

thus adv

153 (d) [5:10]      [unintelligible]

154 (a) [5:11]      … ladle, and it – it settles a bit and then you strain it into a –

spatula sg f
and
acc refl clt
little adv
acc refl clt
calm 3sg pres P after adv
acc n 3sg clt
strain 1pl pres P

155 (a) [5:16]      into – there are these molds, and then it filters out,

in
[...]
disc one pl adj
pres exist
dat refl clt
mold pl m thus adv
acc refl clt
strain 3sg pres I

156 (MM)       Umhm, umhm

bkch
bkch

157 (a) [5:20]      and then you cut it into slices. And after it’s strained they pour it [out]

and
acc refl clt
cut.up 3sg pres P
and
in
slice pl f after adv when conj
acc refl clt
strain 3sg pres P pour 3pl pres I

158 (a) [5:25]      [then] you slice it and it put it in jugs, and salt it,

acc refl clt
cut.up 3sg pres P
and
put 3sg pres I
acc refl clt
in
jug pl n def salt 3sg pres I
acc n 3sg clt

159 (a) [5:27]      in cans, in jugs –

in
can pl f
in
jug pl n

160 (MM)       And the [liquid] that drains out of it?

and
this sg n adj rel
acc refl clt
drain 3sg pres I
from
acc n 3sg

161 (a) [5:30]      Oh, that’s whey. You boil it until it becomes curds.

disc
nom n 3sg
3sg pres cop clt
whey sg f boil 3sg pres I
acc refl clt
and
to
curds sg f

162 (MM)       Ah. So did you used to make butter?

and
O.K. adv
and
butter sg n make 2pl impf I
interr clt

163 (a) [5:35]      We did make it. And it – when – at one point –

disc
make 1pl impf I
and
and
acc n 3sg clt
there adv
for
when conj one.time adv
hes

164 (a) [5:39]      they would pour it into barrels made like this,

pour 3pl impf P
acc n 3sg clt
in
hes
barrel pl f nom n 3sg
dat refl clt
hes
make sg n P.part P thus adv

165 (a) [5:43]      and there’s a mashing staff and we climb up like this on a board

and
one sg n adj plunger sg n
and
acc refl clt
climb 1pl pres P thus adv
on
one f sg adj board sg f

166 (a) [5:46]      and we pound and pound [until] we get butter.

and
pound 1pl pres I there adv
and
pound 1pl pres I
and
knock.out 1pl pres P butter sg n

167 (MM)       But wasn’t there this sort of tall –

but
impf neg exist
interr clt
one sg n adj such sg n adj tall sg n adj such sg n adj like

168 (c) [5:52]      Butter churn.

churn sg f

169 (a) [5:52]      Yes, that’s it! It’s connected there –

disc
disc
this sg n adj
disc
thus adv nom n 3sg hang sg n P.part P

170 (d) [5:54]      Butter churn.

churn sg f

171 (e) [5:54]      Butter churn.

churn sg f

172 (MM)       Churn, is that what it’s called?

churn sg f
interr clt
acc refl clt
say 3sg pres I

173 (a) [5:56]      A churn, yes. But a churn is for hand-made [butter]. This one was –

churn sg f
but
churn sg f def
on
hand sg f
and
that sg n adj 3sg impf cop

174 (a) [5:59]      we would beat in a big churn in the dairy farm when there was a lot of milk.

and
in
draw-well sg m pound 1pl impf I
acc n 3sg clt
in
dairy.farm pl f def when conj
3sg pres cop clt
much adv milk sg n def

175 (MM)       That’s right.

disc
thus adv

176 (a) [6:02]      That’s not possible. Is it possible to [take] five or six buckets of milk –

nom n 3sg
neg
can 3sg pres I
by
five six bucket pl n milk sg n can pres imprs
interr clt

177 (a) [6:05]      and to churn it by hand and get cheese from it?

comp
acc n 3sg clt
pound 2sg pres I nom 2sg
on
hand sg f there adv
and
comp
acc n 3sg clt
make.cheese 2sg pres I

178 (MM)       Yes.

yes

         Tell me how you used to make bread in the olden days.


         What do you mean, how?


         There weren’t [large outdoor] ovens, were there?


         Well, no. We had ovens at home.


         Right –


         At home. There was an oven at home, and it would take –


         we [can] bake seven or eight loaves of bread at a time. We light it,


         a wood fire, and sweep it out, then put the bread into it


         in it with oven peels. It bakes, we take out the bread, eat [it], and then –


         And you – you [were the one who] baked [it]


         I baked it. I [did] all these things, using the oven peel and such.


         O.K., but how do you make [the dough]?


         Well, how do we make it?! I heat up [some] water, I sift out


         the flour and – there was leavening – and I knead it with leavening


         and it rises. And and I separate it out into loaves,


         one by one on a board, and we take it and toss it


         into the oven, and there it is.


         Yes –


         And it bakes for –


         And how do you know when it’s time to put it into the oven?


         Oh, well, you know! It ferments, gets bubbles in it, like this. And


         when it’s risen, I toss it into the oven and that’s that.


         Yes.


         I bake [it].


         It’s been sitting in the kneading trough.


         Yes, the kneading trough. It rises in the kneading trough, and then it ri–


         When I separate it out on the board, it has risen [nicely], and that’s all.


         Yes.


         That’s how it was.


         And every woman makes her own [bread]


         Every woman used to make her own bread at home.


         Did you make any sort of bread without starter?


         Ah, no. Unleavened bread only when you bake it in those –


         in this – [when it’s made] fresh. But otherwise –


         Somewhere also in the outdoor oven?


         Well, you can also bake it in the outdoor oven, but [usually], like now, in [indoor] ovens.


         Otherwise we would heat up the baking dish


         Yes.


         and put the bread into the baking dish, and cover it on top


         with ash and coals –


         Do you have a baking dish – here?


         There used to be, but the baking dish broke. I don’t have [any] baking dish [now].


         You don’t keep it, you don’t –


         I haven’t kept it. [laughter]


         Ahh –


         I don’t need it. Why –


         Where did you used to put that baking dish …


         Well –


         … with the dough [in it]?


         Well, so, you light [a fire] in the hearth. There was a hearth,


         there in front of the big oven, and we put it [the baking dish] in,


         the baking dish heats up, and – and then we take out the baking dish


         and put in the quick bread, and that’s it.


         So then houses weren’t like these [now].


         They had hearths, right?


         They did, they did. But now we’ve made ourselves all –


         we’ve gotten to be somewhat modern [laughter]


         But this house of yours is old. How old is it?


         I don’t know.


         Well, it was built in 1950.


         1950. Ah! Then before that, in those old ones –


         It was built in 1950.


         In the older houses …


         Uh huh,


         … there would have been hearths.


         the older ones.


         But this one didn’t have a hearth, right?


         [laughter] Hey, hey, come on over, come on!


         Come and sit down.


         Older, more like –


         So you’ll tell us what houses were like in the old days [O.K.]?


         Well, the houses of olden days –


         Uh?


          Old-fashioned houses! Each had one of – well, earthen fortification underneath


         and two rooms above. The house and what we called a “soba” –


         two rooms. Otherwise – later they started to make them


         with two stories: two rooms above and down below –


         what we called “zivnitsi” (basements).


         And what was in the basements?


         Well, you could live [there], and in one of them we used to put luggage


         and this and that.


         Right -


         Like – well, for food, you know –


         Yes –


         [that’s where] they put [it].


         What kinds of animals did you have in the old days?


         Well, sheep, cattle –


         So tell me [about] ...


         The she-


         ... the sheep. How did you pasture them, and why did you raise them?


         Well –


         Ah –


         Sheep – we had sheep for – [we kept them] behind the –


         They stayed there in the sheep pen, they didn’t stay in the house.


         Our sheep did not stay in the house. I – my father and grandfather,


         they looked after them in the sheep pen, they didn’t keep them at home.


         As for me, ever since I’ve come here I haven’t – I have one sheep


         and it – I haven’t seen it for three or four years.


         All that time it’s been staying there with my brother.


         Yes.


         Umhm


         I don’t know –


         O.K., then. Why did you raise and look after sheep? For –


         Well for the wool, for the milk …


         So tell me [about] milk, once –


         … for the cheese –


         … once you’ve milked [the animal], how do you process …


         Well –


         … the milk?


         we milk [the animal] and strain the milk, and when it’s cooled some –


         and take it and put rennet in it, it becomes cheese


         and we strain it in strainers.


         Right –


         in molds –


         O.K., so you make white cheese


         [knock on door] Hello.


         Oh hello! [laughter]


         Hello.


         What’s happening? Wait, let me begin [greeting each one] in turn.


         Right, in order!


         Yes, in turn.


         Greetings in turn.


         Yes, yes. My name is Mladenov.


         [I’m Mrs.] Skreshkina, have a seat!


         Yes


         Um


         Just sit still, Granny will tell you [what’s going on].


         Well, I’ll just stand.


         Ah, that’s it!


         Yes, you stand, like this one! You’re young, [laughter], we can


         [laughter]


         … stay [where we are]. It’s gotten to be like that.


         So wait now. You say you strain it –


         Well you str- after they milk the sheep then you strain the milk


         Into what?


         Into what? Into pans, or into a big cauldron if there’s a lot of milk,


         and you add rennet, and it ferments, and –


         Where do you get the rennet from?


         Well, we used to buy it. At one point they would make it from lambs –


         when they slaughter lambs there was rennet. They would pound it and


         add salt, then stir it and you pour it into a bottle


         and make it with water and – That’s what you made cheese from.


         At one time my grandfather made cheese only with this sort of rennet.


         Right, right. And when –


         And then [people] started doing it the European way, and there was –


         Wait, wait – we haven’t finished [talking] about this [kind of] rennet.


         And –


         Where do you put it after that?


         In the milk, of course!


         No, I mean the cheese once [the fermenting] starts up.


         When the cheese gets started, you stir it with a sort of …


         Right –


         [unintelligible]


         … ladle, and it – it settles a bit and then you strain it into a –


         into – there are these molds, and then it filters out,


         Umhm, umhm


         and then you cut it into slices. And after it’s strained they pour it [out]


         [then] you slice it and it put it in jugs, and salt it,


         in cans, in jugs –


         And the [liquid] that drains out of it?


         Oh, that’s whey. You boil it until it becomes curds.


         Ah. So did you used to make butter?


         We did make it. And it – when – at one point –


         they would pour it into barrels made like this,


         and there’s a mashing staff and we climb up like this on a board


         and we pound and pound [until] we get butter.


         But wasn’t there this sort of tall –


         Butter churn.


         Yes, that’s it! It’s connected there –


         Butter churn.


         Butter churn.


         Churn, is that what it’s called?


         A churn, yes. But a churn is for hand-made [butter]. This one was –


         we would beat in a big churn in the dairy farm when there was a lot of milk.


         That’s right.


         That’s not possible. Is it possible to [take] five or six buckets of milk –


         and to churn it by hand and get cheese from it?


         Yes.


1 (MM)       йа̀ да ми ка̀жеш кə ка̀к мѐсехте хл’аба вѝе едно̀ врѐме

2 (a) [0:04]       ми ка̀к

3 (MM)       н нѐмаше фу̀рни налѝ ту̀к

4 (a) [0:07]       ми нѐма ѝмахме си дома̀ фу̀рни

5 (MM)       така̀

6 (a) [1:10]       дома̀ дома̀ си ѝмаше фу̀рн’а но ло̀веше

7 (a) [0:13]       по сѐдем м о̀сем л’а̀ба и опечѐм си напа̀лим а

8 (a) [0:18]       съз дъ̀рва и си а изметѐм нату̀р’аме си л’аба тамᵊ

9 (a) [0:22]       въф нѐа с лопа̀ти опечѐ се изва̀дим л’а̀ба йадѐм и туга̀

10 (MM)       тѝ тѝ си пə пə пѐкла

11 (a) [0:29]       пѐкла съм такѝва ра̀боти на лопа̀та с тако̀ва

12 (MM)       е добрѐ а ка̀к ше го замѐсиш кə

13 (a) [0:33]       ми ка̀к ше го замѐсим ше огрѐа вудъ̀та и ше отсѐа

14 (a) [0:36]       брашно̀ту и и ква̀сᵊ сə си ѝмаше и замѐса с квасъ̀

15 (a) [0:40]       и то̀й фта̀са и го развалъ̀ на една̀ дъскъ̀

16 (a) [0:43]       сѐ по едѝн л’а̀пᵊ и го занесѐм та го ту̀рнем

17 (a) [0:47]       въф фу̀рната и така̀

18 (MM)       да

19 (a) [0:49]       и печѐ се по

20 (MM)       е ка̀к позна̀ваш кога̀ тр’а̀бва да го ту̀риш въф фу̀рната

21 (a) [0:54]       ѐ ми позна̀ва са то̀й си фта̀са шу̀пне така̀ и

22 (a) [0:57]       като возидѐ и а̀с си го ту̀рна въф фу̀рн’ата и така̀

23 (MM)       да̀

24 (a) [1:01]       пѐка си

25 (b) [1:01]       въф ноштвѝте стойа̀л

26 (a) [1:03]       ами ноштовѝ то̀й си фта̀са в ноштовѝте по̀сле вов

27 (a) [1:06]       като го развалъ̀ па на дъскъ̀та возио̀ди и така̀

28 (MM)       да

29 (a) [1:10]       и ту̀й е било̀

30 (MM)       и фс’а̀ка жена̀ си месѝ

31 (a) [1:13]       фс’а̀ка жена̀ си мѐсеше дома̀ л’а̀ба

32 (MM)       а пра̀ехте ли хл’а̀п бес ква̀с н’а̀кəкəф

33 (a) [1:18]       а̀ нѐ ту̀рта съдѐ кога̀ са печѐ в онѝйа

34 (a) [1:20]       ф тѝйа тако̀ва пр’а̀сно а ѝначе

35 (MM)       и н’а̀къде па̀к у фу̀рната ли

36 (a) [1:24]       ми т’а̀ мо̀же и въф фу̀рн’ата ама като сега̀ ф пѐчките

37 (a) [1:27]       а ѝначе па̀лехме по̀дницата̀

38 (MM)       да̀

39 (a) [1:30]       и въф по̀дницата̀ ту̀рнем л’а̀ба и заро̀вим го одго̀ре

40 (a) [1:34]       със пѐпел съз жа̀р и

41 (MM)       е тѝ по̀дница ѝмаш ли си ту̀ка

42 (a) [1:38]       ѝмаше ама са трошѝ по̀дницата та нѐмам ни по̀дница

43 (MM)       не йа̀ па̀зиш не йа̀

44 (a) [1:42]       не съ̀м а пазѝла [смях]

45 (MM)       а̀

46 (a) [1:44]       не мѝ тр’а̀ба зашто̀ е

47 (b) [1:45]       къдѐ си а слага̀ла та̀йа по̀дница

48 (a) [1:47]       əми əми

49 (b) [1:47]       със тесто̀то

50 (a) [1:48]       ами зна̀чи накладѐ се оџа̀кə то̀ си ѝмаше оџа̀к

51 (a) [1:50]       та̀м прет фу̀рн’ата̀ ту̀ка бѐше и ту̀рнем го

52 (a) [1:54]       по̀дницата са напа̀ли и грə сва̀лим по̀дницата̀

53 (a) [1:58]       и ту̀рнем пога̀чата и тəва̀ а

54 (MM)       ама к зна̀чи ə къ̀штите не б’а̀ха като тѝйа

55 (MM)       ѝмаше със оџа̀ци така̀ ли

56 (a) [2:04]       ѝмаше ѝмаше ама сега̀ а напра̀вихме сѐ

57 (a) [2:07]       н’а̀што модѐрни стана̀хме та [смях]

58 (MM)       ама та̀а къ̀шта ва̀шта е ста̀ра ə и ко̀лко е ста̀ра

59 (c) [2:11]       не зна̀м

60 (a) [2:12]       ами пе педесѐта годѝна е пра̀вена

61 (MM)       педесѐ ѐ зна̀чи предѝ това̀ вəф ə онѝйа ста̀рите

62 (a) [2:16]       педесѐта годѝна е пра̀вена

63 (MM)       въф по̀ ста̀рите къ̀шти

64 (a) [2:18]       әhә

65 (MM)       е ѝмало оџа̀ци

66 (a) [2:19]       по̀ ста̀рите

67 (MM)       а тъ̀зи нѐ е ѝмало оџа̀к така̀ ли

68 (a) [2:24]       [смях] йа̀ла йа̀ла йа̀ла

69 (c) [2:25]       йа̀ла седнѝ

70 (a) [2:27]       по̀ ста̀р ə по̀ тако̀во

71 (MM)       а тѝ ше ни ка̀жеш каквѝ б’а̀а и къ̀штите едно̀ врѐме

72 (a) [2:32]       еми ста̀роврѐмски къ̀шти

73 (MM)       а̀

74 (a) [2:34]       староврѐмски къ̀шти съсᵊ по една̀ тако̀ва ә оддо̀ле или на̀сипᵊ

75 (a) [2:42]       и двѐ ста̀и одго̀ре и къ̀шта и со̀ба му вѝкахме

76 (a) [2:45]       двѐ ста̀и а пък ѝначе по̀сле зѐа ги пра̀вътᵊ

77 (a) [2:49]       пъ нъ два̀ ета̀жа та одго̀ре двѐ со̀би оддо̀ле

78 (a) [2:52]       зѝвници им вѝкахме пък

79 (MM)       е у зѝвниците какво̀ бѐше

80 (a) [2:55]       и мо̀жеше а са живѐе и въф едѝна бага̀ш си ту̀р’ахме

81 (a) [2:59]       това̀ онова̀

82 (MM)       така̀

83 (a) [3:00]       така̀ за тако̀ва за хранъ̀ дѐ

84 (MM)       да̀

85 (a) [3:04]       сла̀гат

86 (MM)       а каква̀ сто̀ка ѝмахте вѝе едно̀ врѐме

87 (a) [3:07]       ми о̀фце говѐда

88 (MM)       йа̀ да ми ка̀жеш

89 (a) [3:10]       о

90 (MM)       офцѐте ка̀г ги пас’а̀хте и за какво̀ ги го глѐдахте т’а̀х

91 (a) [3:14]       еми

92 (MM)       ə

93 (a) [3:17]       офцѐте офцѐте ги сме тако̀ва зəт нə ə

94 (a) [3:22]       на сайъ̀тə та̀м седъ̀т тѝа не седѐа дома̀

95 (a) [3:25]       на̀шите о̀фце сə не съ̀ сед’а̀ли дома̀ а̀с д’а̀до и та̀те

96 (a) [3:29]       тѝа са ги гледа̀ле на сайъ̀тə не съ̀ ги държа̀ле дома̀

97 (a) [3:32]       пък а̀с ту̀к отка̀к съм дошла̀ не съ̀м ѝмам еднъ̀ офцъ̀

98 (a) [3:37]       и т’а̀ не съ̀м а видва̀ла трѝ чѐтири го̀дин

99 (a) [3:39]       сѐ е при бра̀та седѝ та̀м

100 (MM)       да

101 (c) [3:41]       м

102 (a) [3:41]       не зна̀м

103 (MM)       е добрѐ за какво̀ ги глѐдахте вѝе офцѐ зə

104 (a) [3:44]       ми за въ̀лна за мл’а̀ко

105 (MM)       йа̀ да ми ка̀жеш мл’а̀кото като

106 (a) [3:47]       за сѝрене

107 (MM)       като го издоѝш ка̀г го прерабо̀твате

108 (a) [3:49]       ами

109 (MM)       мл’а̀кото

110 (a) [3:50]       млеко̀то го издоѝм и прецедѝм го и м ма̀лко тə горѐшто

111 (a) [3:54]       и го зѐмем та го потсѝрим и ста̀не сѝрене

112 (a) [3:58]       прецедѝм го въф цеда̀лки

113 (MM)       така̀

114 (a) [4:00]       ф калъ̀пе

115 (MM)       е добрѐ де пра̀вите сѝрене

116 (d) [4:03]       до̀бър дѐн

117 (a) [4:04]       до̀бър дѐн [смях]

118 (MM)       до̀бəр дѐн

119 (d) [4:05]       кво̀ ста̀ва ча̀кай да по̀чвам нарѐд

120 (a) [4:06]       ѐ и нарѐт

121 (MM)       нарѐд да

122 (a) [4:07]       здра̀ви наред

123 (MM)       да да де мла̀деноф се ка̀звам

124 (d) [4:11]       скрѐшкина сѐдни си

125 (MM)       да

126 (a) [4:11]       тə

127 (c) [4:12]       седнѝ ма̀лко ба̀ба ше ти ка̀же

128 (d) [4:15]       а̀ ше постойъ̀

129 (MM)       а така̀

130 (a) [4:17]       а̀ посто̀й ка̀кто ѐто то̀й вѝе сте младѝ а нѝе мо̀ем

131 (MM)       [смях]

132 (a) [4:20]       да стоѝм та така̀ стана̀

133 (MM)       ча̀кай сега̀ вѝкаш преца̀диж го

134 (a) [4:25]       ми прец като го издо̀ат од офцѐте прецедѝ са млеко̀то

135 (MM)       въф какво̀

136 (a) [4:29]       въф какво̀ въф тѐнџури или въфᵊ ə къза̀н гул’а̀мᵊ като̀ е мно̀го млеко̀то

137 (a) [4:36]       и се ту̀ри сѝриштѐ и потсѝри са и

138 (MM)       откъдѐ сѝриште

139 (a) [4:39]       ми купу̀вахмѐ па н’а̀кога и пра̀веа ут ə ѐгнета̭та̭

140 (a) [4:42]       като зако̀лет ѐгнета ѝмаше сѝриште и счу̀каа го̀ и

141 (a) [4:46]       ту̀рнат со̀л разбъ̀ркад го и го въф шишѐто са сѝпе

142 (a) [4:49]       със во̀да се напра̀ви и се од нѐго се сѝреше

143 (a) [4:52]       н’а̀кога д’а̀до мо̀й сѝреше сѐ със ə тако̀во сѝриште

144 (MM)       əмhəм така̀ и като го

145 (a) [4:57]       а по̀сле европѐйско зѐа да ѝмаше

146 (MM)       ча̀кай ча̀кай не смѐ свъ̀ршили по това̀ със сѝриштето

147 (a) [5:01]       и

148 (MM)       къдѐ го сла̀гаш слет това̀

149 (a) [5:03]       въвᵊ млеко̀то бѐ

150 (MM)       нѐ кат сѝренето като с се фа̀не

151 (a) [5:07]       сѝренето кат са фа̀не са разбъ̀рка със една̀ тако̀ва

152 (MM)       така̀

153 (d) [5:10]       [неразбрано]

154 (a) [5:11]       лопа̀тка и са ма̀лко са ута̀и по̀сле го прецедѝм

155 (a) [5:16]       въф ен тако̀ва еднѝ има си калъ̀пе така̀ се цедѝ

156 (MM)       əмhм əмhм

157 (a) [5:20]       и са нарѐже па на фелѝи по̀сле като се исцедѝ сѝпват

158 (a) [5:25]       са нарѐже и ту̀р’а се ф качѐтата со̀ли го

159 (a) [5:27]       ф тенекѝи ф качѐта̭

160 (MM)       а това̀ дѐто се исцѐжда от нѐго

161 (a) [5:30]       е то̀ е сурува̀тка варѝ са па на изва̀ра

162 (MM)       а добрѐ а ма̀сло пра̀ехте ли

163 (a) [5:35]       ми пра̀вехме че и го та̀м за като н’а̀кога ə

164 (a) [5:39]       сѝпеа го въф ə ка̀ци то̀ си м напра̀вено тако̀ва

165 (a) [5:43]       и едно̀ џурѝло и са ка̀чим така̀ на една̀ дъскъ̀

166 (a) [5:46]       и џу̀ркаме та̀м та џу̀ркаме та избѝем ма̀сло

167 (MM)       а н’а̀маше ли едно̀ тако̀ва висо̀ко тако̀ва като

168 (c) [5:52]       бута̀лка

169 (a) [5:52]       е та това̀ де така̀ то̀ зака̀чено

170 (d) [5:54]       бута̀лка

171 (e) [5:54]       бута̀лка

172 (MM)       бута̀лка ли се ка̀зва

173 (a) [5:56]       бута̀лка ама бута̀лката на ръ̀ка па онова̀ бѐше

174 (a) [5:59]       па на гера̀н бѝехме го на бачѝите като е мно̀го млеко̀то

175 (MM)       а̀ така

176 (a) [6:02]       то̀ не мо̀е по пѐт шѐс в’а̀дра мл’а̀ко мо̀же ли

177 (a) [6:05]       да го бѝеш тѝ на ръ̀ка та̀м и да го сѝриш

178 (MM)       да̀

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Comments and questions may be addressed to bdlt@berkeley.edu.

Recommended Model for Citations

Bulgarian Dialectology as Living Tradition [2016] (http://www.bulgariandialectology.org, visited on 1 March 2016)
Babjak 1: 13-15. In: Bulgarian Dialectology as Living Tradition [2016] (http://www.bulgariandialectology.org, visited on 1 March 2016)

Text | by Dr. Radut