Trjavna

1 (KP)       Are you [all] from the town of Tryavna?

nom 2pl
from
city sg m def
interr clt
2pl pres cop clt
Tryavna sg f place

2 (b) [0:05]      Yes.

yes

3 (a) [0:06]      Well, I’ve retired; I’m on a pension.

disc retire 1sg aor P

4 (b) [0:08]      In our old age we’ve begun to pasture goats.

in
aged pl adj year pl f begin 2pl aor P
comp
pasture 1pl pres I goat pl f

5 (b) [0:11]      We didn’t do it before now, but since we’ve gone on pension,

until.now adv
neg
1pl pres aux clt
acc refl clt
occupy pl L.part I but when conj
acc refl clt
retire 1pl pres I

6 (b) [0:13]      what can we do? We have to get by somehow.

what sg n interr
comp
do 1pl pres I something sg n must pres imprs
comp
get through 1pl pres I already adv

7 (KP)       Yes.

good adv

8 (a) [0:17]      There’s no – there’s no way to get by.

neg exist neg exist from.where interr
comp
get through 1pl pres P disc

9 (KP)       I saw a lot of nice old houses [around] here.

many adv old pl adj house pl f pretty pl adj see 1sg aor P here adv

10 (a) [0:20]      Eh! Nice! Old, old – I don’t like what’s old.

excl
nice sg n adj old sg n adj old sg n adj nom 1sg
neg
like 1sg pres I disc old sg n def adj

11 (c) [0:26]      [unintelligible]

12 (a) [0:28]      Come here, come here!

come sg imv P come sg imv P here adv come sg imv P

13 (c) [0:29]      … because [it’s] nice, but –

because nice sg n adj
but

14 (a) [0:30]      And that one there is a real little one.

disc this sg n adj toddler sg n where rel
3sg pres cop clt
there adv

15 (PSh)       Why did you tie that one up there like that?

and
this sg f adj why interr
2pl pres aux clt
acc f 3sg clt
tie pl L.part P there adv thus adv

16 (a) [0:33]      Because the kids are suckling of course!

disc because suckle 3pl pres I kid pl n def adrs

17 (PSh)       Ah.

disc

18 (a) [0:35]      Otherwise we milk them for the milk.

and otherwise adv
acc 3pl clt
milk 1pl pres I and
for
milk sg n def

19 (b) [0:36]      Look, the boy is recording you! [laughter]

see sg imv P nom n 3sg
acc 2sg clt
record 3sg pres I boy sg n def

20 (a) [0:38]      [laughter] Uh huh [laughter] [He wants] to make a recording –

disc
comp
dat refl clt
record 3sg pres P

21 (b) [0:41]      [laughter] [– for them] to see what sorts of things …

comp
see 3pl pres P what.kind pl adj thing pl f
dat 3pl clt
3pl pres cop clt

22 (PSh)       I can’t remember everything [so I need to record it].

neg
can 1sg pres I everything sg n adj
comp
remember 1sg pres P

23 (a) [0:44]      Well, of course.

disc
understand 3sg pres I
acc refl clt

24 (b) [0:45]      … what he’s seen in the mountains [around here], right?

around
mountain sg m def what sg n interr
3sg pres aux clt
see sg m L.part P
disc

25 (a) [0:46]      The kids suckle, but we also have to eat a bit of milk and cheese.

kid pl n def suckle 3pl pres I and nom 1pl must pres imprs
and
nom 1pl
comp
bite 1pl pres I milk sg n cheese sg n

26 (b) [0:50]      It’s time to wean them. Three months is enough for them.

and time sg n
dat 3pl clt
comp
acc refl clt
wean 3pl pres I three month ct m
dat 3pl clt
suffice 3sg pres I

27 (KP)       And what’s this called, this down here?

and
this sg n adj how interr
acc refl clt
say 3sg pres I below adv

28 (b) [0:54]      [laughter] Pavlinka.

Pavlinka sg f name

29 (b) [0:55]      Pavlinka.

Pavlinka sg f name

30 (KP)       Ah no, down below. This thing that –

disc
no below adv this sg n adj rel

31 (a) [0:58]      Ah! Wattles, wattles.

excl
wattle pl f wattle pl f

32 (b)       Wattles, wattles, little “earrings”.

wattle pl f wattle pl f earring pl f

33 (KP)       Wattles.

wattle pl f

34 (b) [1:00]      Little “earrings”.

earring pl f

35 (a) [1:01]      Little “earrings”.

earring pl f

36 (KP)       Hm.

bkch

37 (a) [1:05]      [cough]

38 (b) [1:06]      Each one has a name.

each sg n adj
dat refl clt
have 3sg pres I name sg n

39 (a) [1:08]      Each goat knows its own name.

each sg f adj goat sg f
dat refl clt
know 3sg pres I name sg n def

40 (KP)       What’s this one’s name?

this sg f adj how interr
acc refl clt
say 3sg pres I

41 (b) [1:10]      Sashka.

Sashka sg f name

42 (KP)       And this one?

and
that sg f adj

43 (b) [1:13]      Which? The one that has the bag?

which sg f interr adj this sg f adj rel
with
bag sg f def

44 (KP)       Yes.

yes

45 (b) [1:15]      Maria.

Maria sg f name

46 (KP)       Hm.

bkch

47 (b) [1:16]      Uh huh.

bkch

48 (a) [1:17]      And that one is Petya.

that sg f adj Petya sg f name

49 (b) [1:18]      Petya’s over there.

there adv Petya sg f name

50 (a) [1:18]      This is Lyubka.

this sg n adj
3sg pres cop clt
Lyubka sg f name

51 (KP)       Yes.

yes

52 (b) [1:21]      And this one is a male, Becho.

and
this sg n adj
3sg pres cop clt
male sg n adj Becho sg m name

53 (KP)       Becho.

Becho sg m name

54 (b) [1:24]      Yes.

yes

55 (a) [1:25]      Yes, Becho.

yes Becho sg m name Becho sg m name

56 (PSh)       And do they obey you? Do they obey you?

and
obey 3sg pres I
interr clt
acc 2pl clt
obey 3sg pres I
interr clt
acc 2pl clt

57 (KP)       And this one?

and
this sg f adj

58 (a) [1:27]      They obey us.

obey 3sg pres I
acc 1pl clt

59 (b) [1:27]      Martina.

Martina sg f name

60 (a) [1:27]      When you call them, they come immediately.

when conj
dat 3pl clt
call 2sg pres P immediately adv come 3pl pres I

61 (KP)       Yes, yes.

yes yes

62 (b) [1:29]      And that one –

that sg f adj
hes

63 (PSh)       You look after them there, by –

nom 2pl
dat refl clt
acc 3pl clt
look 2pl pres I there adv
to

64 (b) [1:30]      Ah [yes].

yes

65 (PSh)       by the house there’s – ?

to
house sg f def
dat refl clt
pres exist

66 (a) [1:32]      Well, we have a little room in the house, sort of like a little basement,

yes at.home adv have 1pl pres I small.room sg f there adv pres exist like basement sg f such sg n adj

67 (a) [1:37]      and we put them there.

and
there adv
acc 3pl clt
put 1pl pres I

68 (KP)       Becho. And this one?

Becho sg m name
hes
this sg f adj

69 (b) [1:39]      Uh –

hes

70 (a) [1:39]      Marta. This one?

Marta sg f name this sg f adj
interr clt

71 (b) [1:41]      The other one, the other one.

other sg f def adj other sg f def adj

72 (a) [1:42]      Lina.

Lina sg f name

73 (b) [1:42]      Lin– Liza, Liza.

[...]
[...]
hes
Liza sg f name Liza sg f name

74 (a) [1:43]      Lina, Liza –

Lina sg f name Liza sg f name

75 (b) [1:44]      Lina, Liza, and this one is …

Lina sg f name Liza sg f name
and
this sg n adj
3sg pres cop clt

76 (a) [1:47]      Maya.

Maya sg f name

77 (b) [1:47]      … Krasimira. That one there, the little one with horns, is Krasimira.

Krasimira sg f name
ost
there adv that sg n adj horned sg n def adj little sg n def adj Krasimira sg f name

78 (KP)       And that one with the bag, the yellow [bag]?

and
that sg f adj
with
bag sg f def yellow sg f def adj

79 (b) [1:53]      Lina.

Lina sg f name

80 (a) [1:53]      Maya, Maya.

Maya sg f name Maya sg f name

81 (b) [1:54]      Lina, that’s Lina. Ah, with the yellow bag! [That’s] Maya.

Lina sg f name and this sg n adj
3sg pres cop clt
Lina sg f name
disc
yellow sg f def adj bag sg f Maya sg f name

82 (a) [1:56]      Maya.

Maya sg f name

83 (b) [1:58]      And that one, Valentina, is over there …

hes
and
ost
this sg f adj
3sg pres cop clt
Valentina sg f name
ost
there adv

84 (PSh)       And after you milk them …

and
when conj
acc 3pl clt
milk 2pl pres P

85 (b) [2:01]      … the multicolored one, the black one.

variegated sg f def adj black sg f def adj

86 (PSh)       … what do you do with the milk?

what sg n interr do 2pl pres I with
milk sg n def

87 (a) [2:03]      Cheese.

cheese sg n

88 (b) [2:04]      Cheese, milk [that] we [put culture in to] make it sour.

cheese sg n milk sg n ferment 1pl pres I

89 (a) [2:05]      Milk that’s been soured (= yogurt).

sour sg n P.part I milk sg n

90 (b) [2:09]      It’s good for everything, we just need to have it.

for
everything sg n adj become 3sg pres I nom n 3sg suffice 3sg pres I
comp
acc n 3sg clt
have 1pl pres I

91 (KP)       Yes.

yes

92 (b) [2:12]      It’s good for everything but –

everything sg n adj become 3sg pres I but

93 (KP)       You make everything here –

here adv everything sg n adj
dat refl clt
make 2pl pres I
hes

94 (a) [2:15]      Well what can we do, granny’s one? What can we do? My pension isn’t [even]

disc what sg n interr
comp
do 1pl pres I grandmother voc sg f what sg n interr
comp
do 1pl pres I my sg f def adj pension sg f neg exist

95 (a) [2:18]      three thousand levs! I walk like crazy around the woods [to make a living].

three thousand pl f lev ct m walk 1sg pres I as foolish sg f adj around woods pl f def

96 (a) [2:21]      What should you buy first? Tell me then!

what sg n interr
comp
buy 2sg pres P more before adv say sg imv P adrs

97 (KP)       Um. And how …

hes
hes
how interr

98 (a) [2:24]      And to –

comp
[...]

99 (KP)       How do you make it, cheese and – milk?

how interr
acc n 3sg clt
make 1pl pres I cheese sg n def
and
milk sg n def

100 (a) [2:27]      Well [for] cheese, after we finish the milking there’s this …

disc cheese sg n def when conj
acc n 3sg clt
milk 1pl pres P
and
pres exist such sg f adj

101 (b) [2:29]      We strain [unintelligible]

strain 1pl pres P

102 (a) [2:30]      … starter – we put [the milk] in a pot

yeast sg f
in
one sg f adj pot sg f
acc n 3sg clt
put 1pl pres I

103 (a) [2:32]      and we put a little starter and it becomes cheese.

and
put 1pl pres I
by
little adv yeast sg f
and
nom n 3sg
dat refl clt
become 3sg pres I cheese sg n def

104 (a) [2:35]      And after that we strain it.

after adv
acc n 3sg clt
strain 1pl pres I

105 (b) [2:36]      You put it into a strainer for two hours,.

for
two m hour ct m put 2sg pres I
acc n 3sg clt
in
one sg m adj strainer sg m thus adv

106 (b) [2:39]      and it strains out and becomes cheese.

and
nom n 3sg
acc refl clt
strain 3sg pres I
and
become 3sg pres I cheese sg n

107 (a) [2:40]      Cheesecloth, [it’s] made [of] cheesecloth, and –

cheesecloth sg m cheesecloth sg m make sg n P.part P
and

108 (KP)       The strainer.

strainer sg m

109 (a) [2:43]      Yes, yes.

yes yes

110 (b) [2:43]      Uh huh. It strains out, and it becomes cheese.

disc
strain 3sg pres I
acc refl clt
and
become 3sg pres I cheese sg n

111 (a) [2:48]      My older [daughter] –

my sg f def adj big sg f def adj

112 (b) [2:49]      When we want more [to keep] for the winter, we salt it

when conj want 1pl pres I
for
winter sg f def more adv
acc n 3sg clt
salt 1sg pres I

113 (b) [2:51]      [but] when we want to eat it freshly salted we don’t salt it,

when conj want 1pl pres I
comp
acc n 3sg clt
eat 1pl pres I fresh.salted sg n adj
neg
acc n 3sg clt salt 1pl pres I

114 (b) [2:54]      we [only] put into it a very little salt for the taste, and they eat it.

very adv little adv thus adv
dat n 3sg clt
put 1pl pres I
for
taste sg m salt sg f
and
acc n 3sg clt
eat 3pl pres I

115 (b) [2:58]      In the summer time it’s mostly eaten that way,

summer sg n adj time sg n
and
probably adv mostly def such sg n adj
acc refl clt
eat 3sg pres I

116 (a) [3:00]      [laughter]

117 (b) [3:00]      mostly at home, I think.

probably adv at.home adv

118 (a) [3:01]      [laughter] Well, cheese – and tomatoes, they’re coming on now.

disc
cheese sg n tomato sg n now adv come.out 3sg pres P

119 (b) [3:04]      [cough]

120 (PSh)       Do you make kashkaval?

and
kashkaval sg m make 2pl pres I
interr clt

121 (a) [3:06]      Now we make kashkaval more – but goat milk is thinner, it’s not …

and
kashkaval sg m now adv make 1pl pres I more but goat's sg n def adj more thin sg n adj milk sg n neg
3sg pres cop clt

122 (b) [3:10]      Sometimes it doesn’t come out successfully, how can I know [what works].

disc
some sg m adj time sg m
neg
can 3sg pres
comp
come.out 3sg pres P successful sg f adj where interr
comp
know 1sg pres I

123 (a) [3:12]      … it’s not like sheep’s [milk] or cow’s [milk].

hes
neg
3sg pres cop clt
how rel sheep's sg n def adj cow's sg n def adj

124 (b) [3:13]      I made some today, I’ll see to what extent I managed to make it [come out right].

today adv 1sg pres aux clt make sg f L.part
fut
acc n 3sg clt
see 1sg pres P to.where interr 1sg pres aux clt
acc n 3sg clt
make sg f L.part P

125 (a) [3:15]      Goat [milk] is a little thinner.

goat's sg n def adj more thin sg n adj

126 (KP)       Goat’s is a little thinner.

goat's sg n def adj more thin sg n adj

127 (a) [3:17]      [It’s] thinner milk.

more thin sg n adj milk sg n

128 (b) [3:18]      And there’s also more fat.

and
but
and
more fatty sg n adj

129 (a) [3:20]      Uh huh.

bkch

130 (b) [3:21]      It’s with more fat, and more buttery, but still it’s thinner.

more fatty sg n adj
3sg pres cop clt
more of.butter sg n adj but
3pl pres cop clt
more thin sg n adj

131 (b) [3:24]      But [when it gets] towards autumn –

but
towards autumn sg f def
acc refl clt

132 (a) [3:25]      In the autumn it gets thicker when there’s less food

autumn sg f def become 3sg pres I thick sg n adj already adv when conj decrease 3sg pres I food sg f def

133 (a) [3:28]      and you start to feed them with –

and
begin 2sg pres I
comp
acc 3pl clt
feed 2sg pres I with

134 (b) [3:30]      The different grasses and other [things they eat] get harder, and –

and
already adv harden 3sg pres I
acc refl clt
this sg n adj grass pl f def one sg n adj other sg n adj
and

135 (b) [3:34]      and the milk gets thicker.

and
become 3sg pres I already adv thick sg n adj milk sg n def

136 (PSh)       Doesn’t anything else other than blackberries grow over there?

and
thither adv
neg
grow 3sg pres I
interr clt
something sg n other sg n adj only adv blackberry pl f

137 (a) [3:38]      Oh there is, there is over there. But not [for pasturing]. It’s been over-grazed.

disc
disc
pres exist
adrs
pres exist
ost
beyond adv but neg exist disc
acc refl clt
graze 3sg aor P

138 (a) [3:41]      There’s a lot of livestock around …

many adv livestock sg m pres exist
and

139 (PSh)       Uh huh.

bkch

140 (a) [3:43]      … and everything’s been all cleaned out. [Do you want] this, hm?

graze.out 3sg aor P dat refl clt disc disc
hes

141 (PSh)       Hah, they understand you!

disc
understand 3pl pres I
acc 2sg clt

142 (a) [3:50]      Ahh!

disc

143 (PSh)       [They’re] intelligent!

intelligent pl adj

144 (b) [3:51]      Each one knows its name.

each sg f adj
dat refl clt
know 3sg pres I name sg n def

145 (a) [3:51]      Martina! Martina! Look here, Martina, what I’ve got for you. Come here!

Martina voc sg f name Martina voc sg f name see sg imv P see sg imv P Martina voc sg f name what sg n interr fut
dat 2sg clt
give 1sg pres P come sg imv P

146 (b) [3:55]      Come here, I’ve got [something] for you [too]. Come here!

come sg imv P nom 1sg
fut
dat 2sg clt
give 1sg pres P come sg imv P

147 (a) [3:58]      Come here, look see what I’ve got for you! Come here! [Now,] you see …

come sg imv P see sg imv P what sg n interr fut
dat 2sg clt
give 1sg pres P come sg imv P
ost
see sg imv P

148 (PSh)       Uh huh.

bkch

149 (a) [4:00]      …how it wants corn. [cough] When they – when they go somewhere

how interr
dat f 3sg clt
acc refl clt
want 3sg pres I corn sg f def disc when conj [...]
when conj go 3pl pres P somewhere adv

150 (a) [4:08]      we bring along a bit and when we call them they come.

and
nom 1pl bring 1pl pres I
by
little adv
and
when conj
acc 3pl clt
call 1pl pres P
and
nom 3pl come 3pl pres I

151 (a) [4:12]      Hey, little Martina, eat, eat, eat!

hort Martinche sg f name graze sg imv I graze sg imv I graze sg imv I
disc

152 (KP)       Do they recognize their names when you call them?

by
name pl n recognize 3pl pres I
interr clt
acc refl clt
when conj
dat 3pl clt
call 2sg pres I

153 (a) [4:15]      Yes! As soon as you call one. Now if we decide we are leaving

yes when conj
acc f 3sg clt
call 2sg pres P
disc
now adv
comp
say 1pl pres P
comp
dat refl clt
set.off 1pl pres I

154 (a) [4:18]      [if] we’re leaving, [then] when I call them they set off at once.

comp
dat refl clt
set.off 1pl pres I when conj
dat 3pl clt
call 1sg pres P
and
immediately adv set.off 3pl pres I

155 (KP)       Hm.

bkch

156 (b) [4:20]      We set off to go home and all of them set off after us. I don’t have to go ...

set.off 1pl pres I
dat refl clt
depart 1pl pres I
and
nom 3pl set.off 3pl impf after
dat 1sg clt
all pl adj fut neg
comp
go 1sg pres I

157 (a)       Uh huh.

bkch

158 (b) [4:23]      ... and chase them to get them back. None of that [is necessary].

comp
acc 3pl clt
chase 1sg pres I
comp
acc 3pl clt
return 1sg pres I
comp
disc neg exist

159 (KP)       They know you.

know 3pl pres I
acc 2pl clt

160 (a) [4:27]      Uh huh.

bkch

161 (b) [4:28]      Yes.

yes

162 (KP)       And – and for cheese, what do you put into [the milk] for it to become [cheese]?

and
hes
to
cheese sg n def what sg n interr
dat n 3sg clt
put 2pl pres I
[…]
for
comp
become 3sg pres P

163 (a) [4:34]      Didn’t I tell you? You put starter.

interr
dat 2sg clt
say 1sg pres I yeast sg f yeast sg f
acc refl clt
put 3sg pres I
and

164 (b) [4:36]      From the store, we have a special –

from
store sg m def have 1pl pres I special sg f adj

165 (a) [4:38]      [In] the store they have this particular starter,

store sg m def pres exist special sg f adj yeast sg f

166 (a) [4:39]      and you put a few drops into each [container of potential cheese].

and
there adv put 2sg pres I
by
how.many interr drop pl f

167 (b) [4:40]      And you put in so many drops.

and
by
how.many interr drop pl f
acc refl clt
put 3sg pres I

168 (b) [4:42]      It sits for two hours, and while it’s sitting it thickens.

and
become 3sg pres I two m hour ct m when conj stand 3sg pres I
and
nom n 3sg
acc refl clt
thicken 3sg pres I

169 (a) [4:44]      It thickens, and then you strain it through a strainer.

thicken 3sg pres I
acc refl clt
after adv through strainer sg m
acc refl clt
strain 3sg pres I

170 (b) [4:45]      Then you put it through a strainer.

and
after adv
acc refl clt
strain 3sg pres I again adv through strainer sg m def

171 (b) [4:47]      Something like a strainer made out of cheesecloth.

cheesecloth sg m make sg n P.part P this sg n adj like strainer sg n

172 (KP)       Hm.

bkch

173 (b) [4:49]      You pour the milk in and it strains.

and
pour 2sg pres I milk sg n def
and
nom n 3sg
acc refl clt
strain 3sg pres I

174 (KP)       And do you know how this was done in the old days?

and
before adv know 2pl pres I
interr clt
how interr
3sg pres aux clt
happen sg n L.part I

175 (b) [4:53]      How?

how interr

176 (a) [4:53]      Ah, in the old days this was done with –

disc
nom n 3sg before adv happen sg n L.part I with
hes

177 (b) [4:55]      Rennet.

rennet sg n

178 (a) [4:55]      In the old days with rennet. When you slaughter a sheep, that is a little kid –

one sg n adj time sg n with
rennet sg n when conj slaughter 1pl pres P sheep sg f def
hes
this sg n adj kid sg n

179 (b) [5:00]      The kid.

kid sg n def

180 (a) [5:00]      a lamb that is still suckling, then there’s starter inside it

lamb sg n nom n 3sg still adv when conj
3sg pres cop clt
suckling sg n pres exist yeast sg f inside adv in
acc n 3sg dat refl clt

181 (a) [5:05]      inside the actual whatever (= stomach).

in
very sg n def adj disc

182 (b) [5:05]      Something milk-like. [They take some] and strain it through a piece of cheesecloth.

milk sg n adj such sg n adj
and
from
acc n 3sg
with
one sg n adj rag sg n
and
acc n 3sg clt
strain 3pl pres I

183 (b) [5:08]      They do it like that.

and
thus adv
acc n 3sg clt
do 3pl pres I

184 (a) [5:10]      Uh huh.

bkch

185 (b) [5:11]      I had gathered [some once] but I never made [cheese] with it.

nom 1sg 1sg impf aux gather sg f L.part P but
neg
1sg pres aux clt make sg f L.part I
from
acc m 3sg

186 (a) [5:13]      Well, I don’t like it.

disc
neg
dat 1sg clt like 3sg pres I

187 (b) [5:14]      Have you made it [that way]?

make sg f L.part I
2sg pres aux clt

188 (a) [5:15]      No, I haven’t made it [that way], but I don’t like it.

no
neg
1sg pres aux clt make sg f L.part I but
neg
dat 1sg clt like 3sg pres I

189 (b) [5:17]      I haven’t made it [either].

neg
1sg pres aux clt make sg f L.part I nom 1sg
disc

190 (KP)       Uh huh.

bkch

191 (a) [5:19]      Bechie, what do you want? Here, granny’s little one!

Becho sg m name what sg n interr want 2sg pres I nom 2sg
adrs
grandmother voc sg f

192 (b) [5:21]      [unintelligible]

193 (a) [5:21]      Shall Granny give [this] to little Bechko? Shall Granny give it?

grandmother sg f
comp
give 3sg pres P
interr clt
to
Bechko sg m name
comp
give 3sg pres P
interr clt
grandmother sg f

194 (KP)       Hm.

bkch

195 (a) [5:25]      Shall Granny give [it] to the little boy?

grandmother f
comp
give 3sg pres P
to
boy sg n def

196 (b) [5:26]      [unintelligible]

197 (a) [5:27]      Ah, you’re Granny’s dear one. Eh, Granny’s little boy!

excl
nom 2sg
2sg pres cop clt
grandmother f dear sg n adj
excl
of
grandmother sg f boy sg n def

198 (KP)       Why [is there] a red necklace [on it]?

why interr red sg m adj necklace sg m

199 (b) [5:33]      Well, we’re going to – when we slaughter it, doesn’t [something] red come out? Blood!

disc
and
when conj
acc n 3sg clt
slaughter 1pl pres P interr release 3sg pres I red sg n adj blood sg f

200 (KP)       Uh huh.

bkch

201 (b) [5:37]      [laughter] We call it a red necklace.

red sg m adj necklace sg m
dat m 3sg clt
call 1pl pres I nom 1pl

202 (KP)       [laughter]

203 (a) [5:38]      Hey, Lina! Where did you go?

adrs
Lina voc sg f name where interr go 2sg aor P

204 (PSh)       But why are you going to slaughter it?

and
why interr
fut
acc n 3sg clt
slaughter 2pl pres I

205 (b) [5:42]      Well, what can we do? We can’t leave all of them [alive].

disc
what sg n interr
comp
acc 3pl clt
do 1pl pres I
neg
can pres imprs all pl def adj adrs
comp
acc 3pl clt
leave 1pl pres I

206 (PSh)       Uh huh.

bkch

207 (b) [5:45]      Isn’t [the animal world] created for slaughtering, to have a little meat, something to eat?

interr create sg n P.part P
comp
acc refl clt
slaughter 3sg pres I
comp
pres exist meat sg n what sg n interr
comp
eat 2sg pres I

208 (PSh)       How big is this one?

and
nom n 3sg how.much
3sg pres cop clt
big sg n adj this sg n adj

209 (b) [5:52]      It’s [three months, now] into its fourth month.

disc
disc
fourth sg m def adj month sg m experience 3sg pres I

210 (KP)       And you take them around all day long?

entire sg m adj day sg m
acc 3pl clt
lead 2pl pres I

211 (b) [6:02]      Well we let them out two hours in the morning and two hours in the afternoon

disc
disc morning sg f
acc 3pl clt
release 1pl pres I two m hour ct m
and
afternoon sg m two m hour ct m

212 (KP)       Uh huh.

bkch

213 (b) [6:07]      All day – where would we go all day? Two hours.

disc
entire sg m adj day sg m where interr
comp
walk 1pl pres I entire sg m adj day sg m two m hour ct m

214 (KP)       They like it the best like that.

most like 3pl pres I disc

215 (b) [6:12]      Well, you know, foliage is nice, because it’s more nourishing.

adrs
ost
this pl adj foliage sg f def
3sg pres cop clt
nice sg n adj
because
more nutritious sg n adj

216 (b) [6:16]      But still it’s not very nourishing.

but otherwise adv neg
3sg pres cop clt
very adv nutritious sg f adj

217 (b) [6:17]      However when there’s nothing else, then that’s O.K. too.

but when conj neg exist other sg n adj
and
nom n 3sg
3sg pres cop clt
good sg n adj

218 (KP)       Uh huh.

bkch

219 (b) [6:21]      What can you do?

what sg n interr
comp
do 2sg pres I

220 (KP)       Uh huh.

bkch

221 (b) [6:22]      A lot has burnt, there [was] a big drought this year, and everything has died off early.

burn.up 3sg aor P much adv drought sg f def big sg f adj this sg f adj year sg f
and
early adv everything sg n adj pass 3sg aor P

222 (KP)       Uh huh.

bkch

223 (a) [6:26]      By the time some [plant] starts to mature, by the time you [can] see it, it’s already died.

until conj something sg n take 3sg pres I
comp
ripen 3sg pres I until conj
acc n 3sg clt
see 2sg pres P pass sg n L.part P

224 (KP)       Uh huh.

bkch

225 (b) [6:30]      The lime trees flowered, and then in two or three days, they were all done.

lime.tree pl f def until conj blossom 3pl pres P after two m three day ct m
and
acc refl clt
finish 3pl aor P

226 (b) [6:34]      And then the next time (= flowering), all week long, and now, because of the heat,

and other sg m adj time sg m
around
entire sg f adj week sg f
and
now adv
from
heat sg f def

227 (b) [6:37]      everything’s all burnt up.

and
everything sg n def adj burn.up 3sg aor P

228 (KP)       They say it’s going to start raining.

disc
fut
precipitate 3sg pres P say 3pl pres I

229 (b) [6:41]      Did they say that?

say 3pl aor P
interr clt
acc n 3sg clt
excl

230 (KP)       They say that it’ll start raining, but who knows?

say 3pl pres I
that conj
fut precipitate 3sg pres P
but
who sg m interr adj know 3sg pres I

231 (b) [6:44]      Well, it did rain a bit last night.

disc
last.night adv interr precipitate 3sg aor P little adv

232 (KP)       Hm.

bkch

233 (b) [6:47]      But it’s O.K. the way it is, what can you do?

disc
adrs
still adv
3sg pres cop clt
good adv what sg n interr
comp
do 2sg pres I

234 (KP)       Hm.

bkch

235 (b) [6:49]      Everything burned up. Nothing this year, there won’t even be potatoes,

everything sg n def adj burn 3sg aor P neg exist this sg f adj year sg f neither potato sg m
fut
pres exist

236 (b) [6:52]      nor will there be beans. Nothing. Other years we get cucumbers and tomatoes –

neither beans sg m
fut
pres exist nothing sg n neg exist other sg f adj year sg f
and
cucumber pl f produce 1pl pres I tomato pl n

237 (b) [6:56]      a little bit of everything. [But] not this year.

everything sg n adj
by
little adv this sg f adj year sg f neg exist

238 (KP)       Uh huh.

bkch

239 (PSh)       And don’t you tie something underneath these things?

and
on
on
this pl adj thing pl f below adv
neg
dat 3pl clt
interr clt
tie 2pl pres I something sg n

240 (b) [7:02]      What should [we tie] on them?

what sg n interr
comp
dat 3pl clt

241 (PSh)       Well, bells –

disc
bell pl m

242 (KP)       [cough]

243 (b) [7:04]      What?

disc

244 (PSh)       Bells, bells.

bell pl m bell pl m

245 (b) [7:05]      Eh! Someone [else might] put them on but we [never] have put them on them.

disc
someone sg m
dat n 3sg clt
put 3sg pres I but nom 1pl
neg
1pl pres aux clt
dat 3pl clt
put pl L.part I

246 (b) [7:08]      There are some who put them on them.

exist some pl adj
dat 3pl clt
put 3pl pres I

247 (PSh)       What do you call them, these bells?

and
how interr
dat 3pl clt
call 2pl pres I
to
acc 3pl
to
this pl adj bell pl m

248 (b) [7:12]      Little bells.

small.bell pl n

249 (PSh)       Little bells.

small.bell pl n

250 (b) [7:18]      So what can you do with them? [They’re] animals. They are very pleasant,

and
what sg n interr
comp
acc 3pl clt
do 2sg pres I animal pl n nom 3pl
3pl pres cop clt
very adv pleasant pl adj

251 (b) [7:21]      goats are, if you ask me. More pleasant than – than people, as they say.

goat pl f def if conj ask 2sg pres I more pleasant sg n adj
from
from
person sg m def rel
3sg pres cop clt
say sg n P.part P

252 (KP)       Uh huh.

bkch

253 (b) [7:25]      They understand. They understand a lot.

nom n 3sg understand 3sg pres I much adv understand 3sg pres I mean 3sg pres I

254 (KP)       An intelligent animal.

intelligent sg n adj animal sg n

255 (b) [7:29]      Intelligent, yes.

intelligent sg n adj yes

256 (PSh)       And good. Not –

and
good pl adj not

257 (b) [7:31]      Yes. And now when I say we’re going, they set off after me.

yes
ost
now adv when conj say 1sg pres P set.off 1pl pres I set.off 3pl pres I after
dat 1sg clt

258 (b) [7:33]      No messing around, none of that.

neg exist two n five neg exist

259 (PSh)       [laughter]

260 (b) [7:35]      Hey, wait up, you little pestilence you!

wait sg imv I
adrs
adrs plague voc sg f

         Are you [all] from the town of Tryavna?


         Yes.


         Well, I’ve retired; I’m on a pension.


         In our old age we’ve begun to pasture goats.


         We didn’t do it before now, but since we’ve gone on pension,


         what can we do? We have to get by somehow.


         Yes.


         There’s no – there’s no way to get by.


         I saw a lot of nice old houses [around] here.


         Eh! Nice! Old, old – I don’t like what’s old.


         [unintelligible]


         Come here, come here!


         … because [it’s] nice, but –


         And that one there is a real little one.


         Why did you tie that one up there like that?


         Because the kids are suckling of course!


         Ah.


         Otherwise we milk them for the milk.


         Look, the boy is recording you! [laughter]


         [laughter] Uh huh [laughter] [He wants] to make a recording –


         [laughter] [– for them] to see what sorts of things …


         I can’t remember everything [so I need to record it].


         Well, of course.


         … what he’s seen in the mountains [around here], right?


         The kids suckle, but we also have to eat a bit of milk and cheese.


         It’s time to wean them. Three months is enough for them.


         And what’s this called, this down here?


         [laughter] Pavlinka.


         Pavlinka.


         Ah no, down below. This thing that –


         Ah! Wattles, wattles.


         Wattles, wattles, little “earrings”.


         Wattles.


         Little “earrings”.


         Little “earrings”.


         Hm.


         [cough]


         Each one has a name.


         Each goat knows its own name.


         What’s this one’s name?


         Sashka.


         And this one?


         Which? The one that has the bag?


         Yes.


         Maria.


         Hm.


         Uh huh.


         And that one is Petya.


         Petya’s over there.


         This is Lyubka.


         Yes.


         And this one is a male, Becho.


         Becho.


         Yes.


         And do they obey you? Do they obey you?


         And this one?


         They obey us.


         Martina.


         When you call them, they come immediately.


         Yes, yes.


         And that one –


         You look after them there, by –


         Ah [yes].


         by the house there’s – ?


         Well, we have a little room in the house, sort of like a little basement,


         and we put them there.


         Becho. And this one?


         Uh –


         Marta. This one?


         The other one, the other one.


         Lina.


         Lin– Liza, Liza.


         Lina, Liza –


         Lina, Liza, and this one is …


         Maya.


         … Krasimira. That one there, the little one with horns, is Krasimira.


         And that one with the bag, the yellow [bag]?


         Lina.


         Maya, Maya.


         Lina, that’s Lina. Ah, with the yellow bag! [That’s] Maya.


         Maya.


         And that one, Valentina, is over there …


         And after you milk them …


         … the multicolored one, the black one.


         … what do you do with the milk?


         Cheese.


         Cheese, milk [that] we [put culture in to] make it sour.


         Milk that’s been soured (= yogurt).


         It’s good for everything, we just need to have it.


         Yes.


         It’s good for everything but –


         You make everything here –


         Well what can we do, granny’s one? What can we do? My pension isn’t [even]


         three thousand levs! I walk like crazy around the woods [to make a living].


         What should you buy first? Tell me then!


         Um. And how …


         And to –


         How do you make it, cheese and – milk?


         Well [for] cheese, after we finish the milking there’s this …


         We strain [unintelligible]


         … starter – we put [the milk] in a pot


         and we put a little starter and it becomes cheese.


         And after that we strain it.


         You put it into a strainer for two hours,.


         and it strains out and becomes cheese.


         Cheesecloth, [it’s] made [of] cheesecloth, and –


         The strainer.


         Yes, yes.


         Uh huh. It strains out, and it becomes cheese.


         When we want more [to keep] for the winter, we salt it


         [but] when we want to eat it freshly salted we don’t salt it,


         we [only] put into it a very little salt for the taste, and they eat it.


         In the summer time it’s mostly eaten that way,


         [laughter]


         mostly at home, I think.


         [laughter] Well, cheese – and tomatoes, they’re coming on now.


         [cough]


         Do you make kashkaval?


         Now we make kashkaval more – but goat milk is thinner, it’s not …


         Sometimes it doesn’t come out successfully, how can I know [what works].


         … it’s not like sheep’s [milk] or cow’s [milk].


         I made some today, I’ll see to what extent I managed to make it [come out right].


         Goat [milk] is a little thinner.


         Goat’s is a little thinner.


         [It’s] thinner milk.


         And there’s also more fat.


         Uh huh.


         It’s with more fat, and more buttery, but still it’s thinner.


         But [when it gets] towards autumn –


         In the autumn it gets thicker when there’s less food


         and you start to feed them with –


         The different grasses and other [things they eat] get harder, and –