Leštak 3

1 (GK)       Let’s us write down a few things [too].

comp
record 1pl pres P
and
nom 1pl something sg n

2 (e) [0:04]      Mhm.

bkch

3 (GK)       Now – a pile of ten sheaves, that’s a “koshina,” right?

now adv mean 3sg pres I sheaf pl m
by
ten number ct m this sg n adj
3sg pres cop clt
pile sg f thus adv
interr clt

4 (e) [0:10]      Yes.

yes

5 (GK)       And the “koshina” is [out] on the field?

and
pile sg f
3sg pres cop clt
this sg n adj
3sg pres cop clt
at
field sg f def
interr clt

6 (e) [0:14]      Yes.

yes

7 (GK)       O.K. Then, after it sits [a while] wherever it is on the field,

thus adv after adv when conj stand 3sg pres I
at
field sg f def somewhere adv where
3sg pres cop clt

8 (GK)       what do they do with it? The “koshina,” that is.

what sg n interr
acc n 3sg clt
do 3pl pres I pile sg f def

9 (e) [0:27]      You put the “koshina” where the threshing field is, where you’ll do the threshing.

pile sg f def med
acc refl clt
lay 3sg pres I where rel
3sg pres cop clt
threshing.floor sg m def where rel fut
acc refl clt
thresh 3sg pres I

10 (GK)       Yes.

yes

11 (e) [0:32]      A flat [place]. And then you cut the sheaves in two,

to
flat sg n adj
and
after adv
acc refl clt
cut 3sg pres I
hes
sheaf sg m def
in
two n

12 (e) [0:37]      or leave them single, however you wish. Then they set out mules – two [of them]

or
in
one sg n adj how rel want 2sg pres I
and
acc refl clt
release 3pl pres I mule pl n two n

13 (e) [0:42]      harnessed [with a rope], and crush it [and] it turns into straw.

tie pl P.part P
and
acc sg n 3sg
crush 3pl pres I happen 3sg pres I straw sg f

14 (GK)       So, O.K. What is a threshing floor?

thus adv good adv
and
what sg n interr represent 3sg pres I threshing.floor sg m def

15 (e) [0:49]      This right here used to be a threshing floor. Right [where we are].

ost
this sg n med adj more early adv 3sg impf cop threshing.floor sg m here adv
ost
here adv

16 (GK)       Really?

yes

17 (e) [0:53]      Here by the chickens, here across from the still.

ost
here adv
to
hen pl f def med
ost
here adv across.from still sg m def

18 (e) [0:56]      From here to here – that was the threshing floor.

from
this sg n med adj
ost
thus med adv 3sg impf cop
ost
threshing.floor sg m

19 (e) [1:00]      Uh huh.

bkch

20 (e) [1:00]      Underneath was a “floor” layered [with] big stones. Like these.

below floor sg n order sg n P.part P stout pl adj stone pl m
ost
such pl med adj

21 (GK)       You all called it a “layered floor.”

nom 2pl
dat n 3sg clt
call 2pl pres I floor sg n order sg n P.part P

22 (e) [1:06]      A “floor”, in the old way [of talking].

yes floor sg n in.old.way adv

23 (GK)       O.K. [And]?

thus adv

24 (e) [1:14 ]      Oh, you’re writing this all down at the same time?

disc
nom 2sg simultaneously adv
and
record 2sg pres I

25 (GK)       Yes.

disc

26 (e) [1:16]      The dialect, I guess?

dialect sg m def surely adv

27 (GK)       Yes.

disc

28 (e) [1:18]      Yes. Well – then you thresh with the mules, and you toss the straw –

yes
and
acc refl clt
thresh 3sg pres I then med adv with
mule pl n def med when conj
acc refl clt
throw 3sg pres P straw sg f def med

29 (GK)       Wait [a minute]. This is – on the stones? Just that?

wait sg imv I now adv nom n 3sg [...]
atop stone sg m def
interr clt
only sg n adj
acc refl clt
do.thus 3sg pres I

30 (e) [1:28]      The sheaves [you mean]?

sheaf pl m def med
interr clt

31 (GK)       Right.

disc

32 (e) [1:29]      Yes.

yes

33 (GK)       On the ground just like that, with the grass on it?

hes
earth sg f def [...]
[...]
with
grass sg f def
interr clt
how rel
3sg pres cop clt

34 (e) [1:33]      There was a fence here, a wall.

hes
disc here adv impf exist fence sg f wall sg m

35 (GK)       Yes.

yes

36 (e) [1:37]      It was fenced off so that dirt couldn’t get into the threshing area.

fence sg n P.part P
and
comp
neg
can pres imprs
comp
enter 3sg pres I soil sg f
to
threshing.floor sg m def

37 (GK)       Uh huh.

bkch

38 (e) [1:43]      So it’ll be …

comp
3sg pres cop clt

39 (GK)       Yes.

yes

40 (e) [1:43]      … clean. So the place where the grain falls will be clean.

clean sg n adj grain sg n def med where rel med fall 3sg pres I
comp
clean sg n adj

41 (GK)       Doesn’t grass sprout on the threshing field?

but
grass sg f
neg
sprout 3sg pres I
interr clt
to
threshing.floor sg m def

42 (e) [1:50]      It sprouts up between the stones, but you pluck out the grass, and clean [the area]

sprout 3sg pres I between stone pl m def med however adv
acc refl clt
pick 3sg pres I grass sg f def med
and
acc refl clt
clean 3sg pres I

43 (e) [1:57]      with a broom so that the grain you gather up later [will be] clean.

with
one sg f adj broom sg f
comp
can pres imprs grain sg n def med after adv
comp
acc refl clt
gather 3sg pres P clean sg n adj

44 (GK)       Aha. And first did they – how did they call those – that, “nakɤlvavat” (cut up small)?

excl
and
hes
first adv
acc refl clt
to
[...]
how interr
dat 3pl clt
call 3pl impf I

45 (GK)       [did they say] “nakɤlvavat” [in the meaning “cut up small”]?

that sg n adj
[ .. ]
cut.up.small 3pl pres I
acc n 3sg clt

46 (e) [2:09]      You chop it up with an ax.

with
ax sg f
acc refl clt
chop 3sg pres I

47 (GK)       You didn’t [use the word] “nakɤlvava”?

nom 2pl
neg
call 2pl pres I cut.up.small 3sg pres I
acc refl clt

48 (e) [2:13]      [For] what?

what sg n adj

49 (GK)       The grain. The sheaves.

grain sg n def sheaf pl m def

50 (e) [2:16]      First you break it up – with a pitchfork.

first adv
acc refl clt
break.up 3sg pres I with
pitchfork sg f

51 (GK) [2:18]      Aha!

bkch

52 (e) [2:20]      The grain falls out, you gather it up, and after that

fall 3sg pres P grain sg n def med gather 3sg pres P
acc refl clt
and
after this sg n med adj

53 (GK)       And it’s after that that you let out the bulls – or is it oxen?

and
after adv
interr clt
small.bull pl n
acc refl clt
release 3pl pres I
or
there adv ox pl m

54 (e) [2:24]      Yes, after that. After you cut the sheaves,

yes after adv after adv when conj
acc refl clt
cut 3sg pres P sheaf pl m def med

55 (GK)       Yes.

yes

56 (e) [2:27]      and then they start up the horses – horses, hinnies, it doesn’t matter –

and
release 3pl pres P
hes
release 3pl pres I then med adv horse pl m def med horse pl m
interr clt
hinny pl m
interr clt
independently adv

57 (e) [2:33]      and they trample it and crush it and bring it into the hayloft.

and
acc n 3sg clt
trample 3pl pres P crush 3pl pres P
acc n 3sg clt
and
acc refl clt
gather 3sg pres I
in
hayloft sg f def med

58 (GK)       Uh huh. And how do you keep it in the hayloft? Let’s say you’ve got rye,

disc
hayloft sg f def how interr
acc refl clt
guard 3sg pres I
comp
say 1pl pres P have 2sg pres I rye sg f

59 (GK)       you’ve got – what else? You didn’t plant wheat?

have 2sg pres I
hes
what sg n interr other sg n adj there adv wheat sg f
nom 2pl
neg
2pl pres aux clt plant pl L.part I

60 (e) [2:47]      None of that! There’s the hayloft over there.

pres neg exist
adrs
ost
ost hayloft sg f def med there adv

61 (GK)       And how did you keep things? Did you have separate areas where –

and
how interr
acc sg n 3sg
guard 2pl impf I have 2pl impf I
interr clt
separate pl adj place pl n where rel

62 (GK)       some special place in the hayloft to keep grain – that is, individual grains?

special sg n adj place sg n rel
comp
acc n 3sg clt
keep 2pl pres I
in
hayloft sg f def grain sg n def this sg n adj grain sg n def

63 (e) [2:57]      The grain was [kept] in the barn, separately, in sacks.

grain sg n def med in
barn sg m def separately adv in
sack pl m

64 (e) [3:01]      They winnow it in the wind so it will be clean.

winnow 3pl pres P
acc n 3sg clt
thus med adv
in
wind sg m def
comp
clean sg n adj

65 (GK)       Uh huh. How did you winnow it?

disc
how interr
acc sg n 3sg
winnow 2pl impf I

66 (e) [3:06]      Well, with grates. These [things with] handles.

disc with
grate sg n def med some pl adj handle pl f such pl med adj

67 (GK) [3:09]      Uh huh.

bkch

68 (e) [3:10]      Like these things that itinerant peddlers sell.

like such sg n med adj rel sell 3pl pres I peddler pl m def med

69 (GK)       Uh huh.

bkch

70 (e) [3:16]      And you raise it like this, on a plastic sheet, a horse blanket –

and
acc n 3sg clt
raise 3sg pres I thus med adv
on
on
plastic sg m
to
horse.blanket sg m

71 (GK)       Uh huh.

bkch

72 (e) [3:21]      something. You raise it and it disperses in the wind. The chaff falls away,

on
something sg n raise 3sg pres I
acc n 3sg clt
and
in
wind sg m def
acc refl clt
winnow 3sg pres I chaff sg f def med flee 3sg pres I

73 (e) [3:26]      and what’s left is pure grain. They gather it up into sacks [and put it] in the barn

remain 3sg pres I clean sg n adj grain sg n def med gather 3pl pres I
dat refl clt
acc n 3sg clt
in
in
sack pl m
in
barn sg m def

74 (e) [3:31]      And it’s ready for the winter. For grinding, for food,

and
for
winter sg f def med
3sg pres cop clt
ready sg n adj
for
for
grind vbl.n I
for
eat vbl.n I

75 (e) [3:34]      for the livestock, for the chickens –

for
animal pl m
interr clt
for
hen pl f
interr clt

76 (GK)       Uh huh, uh huh,

bkch
bkch

77 (e) [3:38]      Yes.

yes

78 (GK)       Uh huh. OK then. In our region they call this softest part, what’s left

disc
now adv
by
our sg m def adj region m sg
to
this sg n adj most soft sg n def adj rel remain 3sg pres I

79 (GK)       after the animals crush it up, after you thresh – they call this “mekina”.

from
when conj
acc n 3sg clt
crush 3pl pres I animal pl n def when conj
acc refl clt
thresh 3sg pres P
dat n 3sg clt
call 3pl pres I soft.part sg f

80 (GK)       Have you heard this word around here?

by
acc 2pl hear sg m L.part I
interr clt
2sg pres aux clt
this sg f adj word sg f

81 (e) [3:50]      No.

no

82 (GK)       It’s [just] chaff.

chaff sg f
dat refl clt
3sg pres cop clt

83 (e) [3:52]      The chaff?

chaff sg f def med

84 (GK)       Yes.

yes

85 (e) [3:55]      But that – the chaff remains separate.

disc nom f 3sg chaff sg f def med
dat refl clt
remain 3sg pres I separately adv

86 (GK)       So now if there are stones, and some dirt [comes in], after that

and
now adv
if conj
pres exist stone pl m something sg n soil sg f after this sg n adj

87 (GK)       do you clean it some other way? For instance the grains.

clean 3sg pres I
interr clt
acc refl clt
by
other sg m adj manner sg m some.kind sg m adj for.example adv like grain sg n def

88 (GK)       You gather the grains up afterwards into a pile, right?

grain sg n def
acc n 3sg clt
gather 2pl pres I after adv
in
pile sg m interr

89 (e) [4:10]      Yes.

yes

90 (GK)       Did you call that “sor” in the old days? Something else? Was there a word for it?

call 2pl impf I
interr clt
dat n 3sg clt
pile sg m one sg n adj time sg n
or
how interr word sg f exist impf
interr clt
for

91 (e) [4:14]      In a pile. It’s gathered into a pile.

in
pile sg m
in
pile sg m
acc refl clt
gather 3sg pres I

92 (GK)       Into a pile.

in
pile sg m

93 (e) [4:15]      Into a “sor”, into a “sor”.

in
pile sg m
in
pile sg m

94 (GK)       Ah, [it was] a “sor” …

disc
in
pile sg m

95 (e) [4:17]      Into a “sor”.

in
pile sg m

96 (GK)       … [that] you called it. Ah, so.

dat m 3sg clt
call 2pl impf I
disc
thus adv

97 (e) [4:18]      In general [terms].

mean 3sg pres I generally adv

98 (GK)       “Sor”.

pile sg m

99 (e) [4:23]      As for the husks, you twirl the grate around like this. The women

yes
and
rel pres exist husk pl m
in
grate sg n def med
acc n 3sg clt
turn 3sg pres P thus med adv

100 (e) [4:27]      twirl it around and the husks stay behind. [All that] rises up.

woman pl f def med
acc n 3sg clt
turn 3pl pres I
and
husk pl m def med remain 3sg pres I raise 3sg pres I
acc refl clt
above adv

101 (e) [4:31]      It’s lighter, you know.

interr
3sg pres cop clt
more light sg n adj

102 (GK)       Aha!

bkch

103 (e) [4:32]      It gets separated from the wheat and rises up.

emerge 3sg pres I
from
grain sg n def med
and
acc refl clt
raise 3sg pres I above adv

104 (e) [4:34]      They gather it up in their hands and throw it off [to the side],

nom 3pl
acc n 3sg clt
gather 3pl pres I
with
hand pl f def med
and
acc n 3sg clt
throw 3pl pres I

105 (GK)       Aha,

bkch

106 (e) [4:37]      and that’s how it gets purified.

and
thus med adv
acc sg n 3sg
purify 3sg pres P

107 (GK)       Ah. So then this grate: was there a particular word

disc
on
this sg n adj grate sg n impf exist
interr clt
dat n 3sg clt
special sg f adj word sg f

108 (GK)       for it? Did you say “grate”? What is it made from?

comp
acc refl clt
say 3sg pres I nom n 3sg grate sg n
from
what sg n interr
3sg pres cop clt
make sg n P.part P

109 (e) [4:46]      From leather.

from
skin sg f

110 (GK)       From leather. And underneath, [there was] –

from
skin sg f with
hes
below adv mean 3sg pres I

111 (e) [4:51]      Holes, the size of a cigarette, [for things] to go [through].

hole pl f how.much rel cigarette sg f def
down adv
comp
enter 3sg pres P

112 (GK)       Aha. So that stones could go through there, and –

disc
from
there adv can pres imprs
comp
fall 3pl pres P stone pl m
and
to

113 (e) [4:57]      No, that’s where the grain goes through –

no from.there adv pass 3sg pres I grain sg n def med

114 (GK)       Ah! [It’s] the grain [that] passes through and falls –

excl
grain sg n def
dat refl clt
pass 3sg pres I below adv fall 3sg pres I

115 (e) [4:59]      Yes, the grain falls through, and what’s left is the awns and husks.

comp grain sg n def med pass 3sg pres I below adv
and
this sg n med adj rel awn sg m def husk pl m remain 3sg pres I

116 (GK)       Aha, and then you gather that up in your hands …

disc
and
nom n 3sg
acc refl clt
gather 3sg pres I
with
hand sg f

117 (e) [5:06]      Yes.

yes

118 (GK)       … and throw it off to the side. Right.

and
acc refl clt
throw 3sg pres P sideways adv disc

119 (e) [5:08]      You can also thresh in the meadow. Where it’s flat [that is].

can pres imprs
and
to
meadow sg f
comp
acc refl clt
thresh 3sg pres I where rel
3sg pres cop clt
flat sg n adj

120 (GK)       But still you’d have to have stones underneath, [wouldn’t you]?

but
again adv need pres I imprs
comp
pres exist stone pl m below adv

121 (e) [5:13]      No.

no

122 (GK)       But how do you do it [then]?

disc how interr
acc refl clt
do 3sg pres I

123 (e) [5:15]      You can do it without, if it’s dry. But it is harder to sweep [up] the grains.

can pres imprs
comp
pres neg exist when conj
3sg pres cop clt
dry sg n adj thus med adv more difficult adv
acc refl clt
sweep 3sg pres I grain sg n def med

124 (GK)       Uh huh.

bkch

125 (e) [5:19]      It stays in the grass.

remain 3sg pres I
dat refl clt
on
grass sg f def med

126 (GK)       Hm.

bkch

127 (e) [5:22]      Yes

yes

128 (GK)       But didn’t the grass get cleaned [out] beforehand?

neg
acc refl clt
interr clt
clean 3sg impf I grass sg f def before adv

129 (e) [5:24]      Well, like it is down there, you see …

disc
as this sg n med adj below adv see sg imv P

130 (GK)       Uh huh.

bkch

131 (e) [5:26]      … where there’s –

where rel
3sg pres cop clt

132 (GK)       Yes.

comp

133 (e) [5:28]      That’s where they could thresh. And they did. They clear it off

ost
there adv can pres imprs
comp
comp
thresh 3pl pres I
and
thresh pl L.part I
3pl pres aux clt
clear.off 3pl pres P
acc n 3sg clt

134 (e) [5:32]      a bit with a “turpan” (scythe) so there’s nothing big [in the way], and they thresh.

with
scythe sg m def little adv
comp
pres neg exist coarse sg n adj
and
and
thresh 3pl pres I

135 (GK)       What is this “turpan”?

what sg n interr
3sg pres cop clt
this sg n adj scythe sg m

136 (e) [5:39]      A “turpan”, [the thing] that you mow gr- hay with. A mower.

scythe sg m def rel mow 3sg pres I
[...]
hay sg n def med mower sg n

137 (GK)       Aha.

bkch

138 (e) [5:43]      A scythe.

scythe sg f

139 (GK)       A scythe.

scythe sg f

140 (e) [5:43]      A scythe.

scythe sg f

141 (GK)       That’s what you call it.

this sg n adj
dat n 3sg clt
call 2pl pres I

142 (e) [5:45]      It’s called a “turpan” here.

[...]
here adv
acc m 3sg clt
say 3pl pres I scythe sg m

143 (GK)       Aha.

bkch

144 (e) [5:52]      Yes. But in the fields we reap with a sickle. Fields with rye.

comp
hes
field sg f def med
acc refl clt
reap 3sg pres I with
sickle sg m this sg f med adj field sg f rye sg f def med

145 (GK)       Aha.

bkch

146 (e) [5:58]      You know what a sickle is, right? This thing that’s round.

sickle sg m interr
acc m 3sg clt
know 2pl pres I such sg n med adj one sg n adj round sg n adj

147 (GK)       On the front part where the blade is –

from
front sg f def adj side sg f rel rel
3sg pres cop clt
blade sg n def

148 (GK)       is that [part] smooth, or is it –

this sg n adj
hes
smooth sg n adj
interr clt
3sg pres cop clt
or

149 (e) [6:07]      Well, I have one. I can show it to you. My sickle.

disc nom 1sg
acc m 3sg clt
have 1sg pres I can 1sg pres I
dat 2sg clt
acc m 3sg clt
show 3sg pres P sickle sg m def med

150 (GK)       Is it smooth, or is it this [other way]?

smooth sg n adj
interr clt
3sg pres cop clt
or
this.sort sg n adj

151 (e) [6:13]      [It’s] jagged.

toothlike sg n adj

152 (GK)       It’s jagged.

toothlike sg n adj
3sg pres cop clt

153 (e) [6:13]      [It’s] jagged [in the area] that does the cutting.

toothlike sg n adj rel cut 3sg pres I

154 (GK)       Uh huh.

bkch

155 (e) [6:16]      It’s got these teeth, and that’s what does the cutting.

with
little.teeth pl f
and
cut 3sg pres I this sg n med adj

156 (GK)       Did you put something onto your left hand?

on
left sg f def adj hand sg f put 2pl impf I
interr clt
something sg n

157 (e) [6:20]      On the left hand there’s what they call a swaphook

to
left sg f def med adj hand sg f pres exist swaphook sg f say 3pl pres I

158 (GK)       Aha.

bkch

159 (e) [6:24]      A woman pushes it onto her fingers so they don’t get cut when she reaps.

stick 3sg pres I
acc f 3sg clt
in
finger pl m def med
comp
neg
acc refl clt
cut 3sg pres I when conj reap 3sg pres I woman sg f def med

160 (GK)       It’s [used] only for that?

only adv
for
this sg n adj
interr clt

161 (e) [6:29]      Yes.

yes

162 (GK)       But for –

but
for

163 (e) [6:30]      and it gathers more.

and
gather 3sg pres I more adv

164 (GK)       Uh huh.

bkch

165 (e) [6:32]      It gathers more straw because it’s hooked here, like a horn.

gather 3sg pres I more adv straw sg f because conj nom f 3sg
3sg pres cop clt
with
hook sg f
ost
here adv
with
horn sg m

166 (GK)       Uh huh.

bkch

167 (e) [6:36]      See, there’s this “horn” [on] …

ost
such sg m med adj horn sg m have 3sg pres I

168 (GK)       Uh huh.

bkch

169 (e) [6:37]      … the swap hook.

swaphook sg f def med

170 (GK)       Uh huh.

bkch

171 (e) [6:41]      It’s got holes. It’s wooden.

pres exist hole pl f nom f 3sg
3sg pres cop clt
wooden sg f adj

172 (GK)       Uh huh.

bkch

173 (e) [6:43]      Have you ever seen one? No?

see sg m L.part I
interr clt
2sg pres aux clt
no

174 (GK)       No.

no

175 (e) [6:45]      It’s wooden. You push your four fingers in, and there’s the horn here.

wooden sg f adj
3sg pres cop clt
push 3sg pres P four def med finger ct m pres exist here adv horn sg m then med adv

176 (e) [6:50]      After the fingers there’s a horn. See, like this,

after finger pl m def med pres exist horn sg m
ost
such sg m med adj

177 (GK)       Aha.

bkch

178 (e) [6:52]      where it gathers up the straw. You grab it thus, and the sickle reaps from below.

rel gather 3sg pres I straw sg f def med grab 3sg pres P thus med adv
and
below adv reap 3sg pres I sickle sg m def

179 (GK)       From below. Does it slash [the grain] or –

below adv
hes
acc n 3sg clt
cut 3sg pres I
or
acc n 3sg clt

180 (e) [6:58]      It cuts it.

hes
hes
slice 3sg pres I
acc n 3sg clt

181 (GK)       It cuts it.

slice 3sg pres I
acc n 3sg clt

182 (e) [6:59]      It cuts it. It’s sharp, jagged. And it cuts like this. Several times,

slice 3sg pres I
acc n 3sg clt
nom n 3sg
3sg pres cop clt
sharp sg n adj toothlike sg n adj slice 3sg pres I thus med adv several adv time pl m

183 (e) [7:03]      [in] handfuls, they call them. I put [the straw] in sheaves. There’s another [person]

handful pl f
acc n 3sg clt
say 3pl pres I put 1sg pres P
acc n 3sg clt
in
sheaf pl m other sg m adj pres exist again adv

184 (e) [7:07]      who gathers it and ties it, like this, into sheaves. Then off to the threshing floor.

and
acc n 3sg clt
gather 3sg pres I
acc n 3sg clt
tie 3sg pres I thus med adv
in
sheaf pl m
and
depart 3sg pres I
to
threshing.floor sg m def

185 (GK)       Uh huh. Uh huh. So, O.K. Then after you take it to the hayloft

bkch
bkch
thus adv
and
after adv when conj
acc n 3sg clt
take 2pl pres P in
hayloft sg m def

186 (GK)       you keep it in a separate place there, in bags.

there adv
in
separate sg n adj place sg n
in
bag pl m
acc n 3sg clt
keep 2pl pres I

187 (e) [7:21]      No, [you do] it there –

no nom n 3sg there adv

188 (GK)       At the threshing field.

to
threshing.floor sg m def

189 (e) [7:22]      you pile it up in a pile [there].

acc refl clt
pile 3sg pres I
in
pile sg m

190 (GK)       Aha.

bkch

191 (e) [7:23]      You pile it up in a pile, and later you take it in a basket for –

pile 3sg pres I
acc refl clt
in
pile sg m
and
after adv
acc refl clt
take 3sg pres I
in
basket sg m def
for

192 (e) [7:27]      the cow, the mule – for the livestock.

for
cow sg f def med
for
mule sg n def med
for
for
livestock sg m def

193 (GK)       The straw is for the livestock.

straw sg f def
3sg pres cop clt
for
livestock sg m def

194 (e) [7:32]      Yes.

yes

195 (GK)       The chaff.

chaff sg f def med

196 (e) [7:34]      Yes.

yes

197 (GK)       And the grain?

and
grain sg n def

198 (e) [7:38]      The grain [is kept] separately, in bags. Separately, in the barn.

grain sg n def med separately adv
in
bag pl m def med
in
barn sg m def separately adv

199 (GK)       So, and [then] where did you used to grind it?

thus adv
and
where interr
acc n 3sg clt
grind 2pl impf I

200 (e) [7:43]      But, there are mills! There are mills at Leska, where there are people by the river.

disc pres exist mill pl f pres exist in
Leska sg f place mill pl f where rel med pres exist people pl
by
river sg f def med

201 (GK)       Mmhm.

bkch

202 (e) [7:52]      They built mills [there]. [Grain] is driven there, and ground.

3pl pres aux clt
make pl L.part P mill pl f drive 3sg pres I
acc refl clt
there adv
and
acc refl clt
grind 3sg pres I

203 (GK)       Mmhm, mhmh. And did you have any sort of mills in the house

bkch
bkch
and
at.home adv have 2pl impf I
interr clt
dat refl clt
mill pl f such pl adj

204 (GK)       that you could grind – that women could grind by hand?

comp
acc refl clt
grind 3sg pres I
comp
grind 3pl pres I woman pl f def
by
hand sg f

205 (e) [8:03]      There’s one that they grind corn with. It chops up the kernels into –

pres exist rel corn sg f grind 3pl pres I
acc f 3sg clt
chop 3sg pres I
acc n 3sg clt
kernel sg n def med
in

206 (e) [8:08]      well, how can I tell you?

thus med adv how interr
comp
dat 2sg clt
say 1sg pres P

207 (GK)       Say the word the way you call it.

how rel
dat n 3sg clt
call 2pl pres I word sg f def say sg imv P

208 (e) [8:12]      They call it cornmeal.

cornmeal sg f
acc n 3sg clt
say 3pl pres I

209 (GK)       Uh huh.

bkch

210 (e) [8:14]      It’s ground up very tiny, and then they cook it with a little bit of beans,

in
tiny sg n adj
acc n 3sg clt
grind 3sg pres P
and
acc n 3sg clt
cook 3pl pres I with
little adv beans sg m

211 (GK)       Uh huh.

bkch

212 (e) [8:18]      and it becomes soup.

and
become 3sg pres I soup sg f

213 (GK)       You called it soup. Didn’t that dish have some particular name?

soup sg f
2pl pres aux clt
dat n 3sg clt
call pl L.part I impf neg exist
interr clt
this sg f adj dish sg f special sg n adj name sg n

214 (GK)       Some name that was its alone? When they say “soup” that means –

some.kind sg n adj name sg n her sg n adj
dat refl clt
only adv soup sg f when conj say 3pl pres P this sg n adj mean 3sg pres I

215 (e) [8:26]      Soup.

soup sg f

216 (GK)       Cornmeal with this –

cornmeal sg f with
such sg n med adj

217 (e) [8:29]      Cornmeal with beans.

cornmeal sg f with
beans sg m

218 (GK)       Uh huh – that’s what it’s called.

disc thus adv
acc refl clt
say 3sg pres I

219 (e) [8:31]      Yes. Mmhm.

yes disc

220 (GK)       Uh huh. [So then.] How did people used to plow?

bkch
how interr plow 3pl impf I

221 (e) [8:44]      With oxen.

with
hes
ox pl m

222 (GK)       Only with oxen?

with
ox pl m only adv

223 (e) [8:48]      Earlier, they plowed with oxen. They harness two oxen

with
ox pl m more early adv plow 3pl impf I two m ox ct m
acc refl clt
harness 3pl pres I

224 (e) [8:52]      with [a piece of wood] connected here, and a plow. One person drives it –

with
wood sg n here adv attach pl P.part P
and
with
plow sg n def med one sg m adj
acc 3pl clt
drive 3sg pres I

225 (GK)       Yes. Uh [this] one – is he in front or behind?

yes
hes
one sg m adj in.front adv
or
behind adv

226 (e) [9:01]      No, only behind, where he holds the plow.

no only adv behind adv rel hold 3sg pres I plow sg n def med

227 (GK)       Right.

thus adv

228 (e) [9:04]      But there’s no oxen now. [People] plow with a mule now.

and
now adv ox pl m pres neg exist now adv with
mule pl n plow 3pl pres I

229 (GK)       Now, this thing where the oxen are attached, how did you call that?

and
now adv there adv rel
3pl pres cop clt
attach pl P.part P ox pl m def this sg n adj how interr
dat n 3sg clt
say 2pl impf I

230 (e) [9:10]      Uh –

disc

231 (GK)       A yoke?

yoke sg m

232 (e) [9:18]      Hah, a yoke!

yoke sg m
adrs

233 (GK)       Yes?

disc

234 (e) [9:20]      Ahh, a yoke!

yoke sg m
adrs

235 (GK)       Is that how you used to call it?

thus adv
interr clt
dat m 3sg clt
say 2pl pres I

236 (e) [9:21]      I’ve forgotten it, devil take it! Yes, the yoke. The yoke and the plow

forget sg m L.part P
acc m 3sg clt
1sg pres aux clt Mom sg f
dat m 3sg clt
old sg f adj excl yoke sg m yoke sg m
and
plow sg n

237 (e) [9:26]      Look at you, how do you know that?! [laughter]

ost
see sg imv P nom 2sg how interr
acc n 3sg clt
know 2sg pres I

238 (GK)       Well, that happens to be my [line of] work! [laughter]

to
acc 1sg this sg n adj
dat 1sg clt
3sg pres cop clt
work sg f def

239 (e) [9:29]      Well, well.

disc

240 (GK)       [laughter]

241 (e) [9:39]      I forgot it. That’s stuff from a long time ago, you know?

forget sg m L.part P
acc n 3sg clt
1sg pres aux clt this sg n med adj long.ago sg f adj work sg f adrs

242 (GK)       Well, that’s my work. So, O.K., that’s below. Which part do you call

this sg n adj this sg n adj
dat 1sg clt
3sg pres cop clt
work sg f mean 3sg pres I below adv good adv which sg n interr adj
acc refl clt
say 3sg pres I

243 (GK)       the yoke – the upper piece of wood or the lower one?

yoke sg m upper sg n def adj wood sg n
or
lower sg n def adj

244 (e) [9:41]      What’s on the oxen.

rel
to
ox pl m def med

245 (GK)       That’s it. And [it’s made from] two [pieces of] wood, right?

pres exist nom n 3sg interr
3sg pres cop clt
from
two n wood pl n

246 (e) [9:46]      No, [just] from one.

no
from
one sg n adj

247 (GK)       From one [piece of] wood. One [piece of] wood on top, is that it?

from
one sg n adj wood sg n one sg n adj above adv wood sg n thus adv
interr clt

248 (e) [9:49]      One on top. One [piece of] wood on top, and it lies on the neck

one sg n adj above adv one sg n adj above adv wood sg n
and
lie 3sg pres I
on
neck sg m def

249 (e) [9:56]      of both one ox and the other, like this – one light [piece of wood]

of
one sg m def adj ox sg m
and
of
other m def adj
ost
thus adv one sg n adj wood sg n light sg n adj

250 (e) [10:01]      on [their] necks. And there’s holes bored here, and large pins dropped [into them].

to
neck sg m def
and
here adv pres exist bore sg n P.part P hole pl f drop pl P.part P pin pl m

251 (GK)       Right –

thus adv

252 (e) [10:06]      The pins come down like this. Here’s one, and here’s the other.

pin pl m def med
hes
descend 3pl pres I thus med adv
ost
here adv one sg n adj
and
here adv other sg n adj

253 (e) [10:12]      [They fit] tight. And here’s [where] you bind it up here with a tie, a rope.

tight pl adj
and
here adv
acc refl clt
tie 3sg pres I with
tie sg f rope sg f

254 (GK)       O.K. now, here we’ve got it. There’s this thing here, how do you call it?

ost
acc n 3sg clt
now adv how interr
3sg pres cop clt
here adv pres exist this sg n adj one sg n def adj how interr
acc refl clt
say 3sg pres I

255 (e) [10:21]      That’s the yoke.

this sg n med adj
3sg pres cop clt
yoke sg m def

256 (GK)       Right.

thus adv

257 (e) [10:23]      And this that’s hanging down below, that’s called the pins.

and
this sg n med adj below adv rel hang sg n P.part P
acc refl clt
say 3sg pres I pin pl m

258 (GK)       This here, one of them?

this sg n adj one sg f def adj

259 (e) [10:28]      [That’s] one, and here there is one

one sg f def adj
and
here adv pres exist one sg f adj

260 (GK)       One “pin”, is that how you call it?

pin sg m
interr clt
acc refl clt
say 3sg pres I how interr

261 (e) [10:31]      Pins, pins!

pin pl m pin pl m

262 (GK)       They’re called “pins”.

pin pl m
acc refl clt
say 3sg pres I

263 (e) [10:32]      Yes.

yes

264 (GK)       O.K. And then, how is it tied down below?

thus adv