1 (VZh) OK. And now, can you first tell us
|disc||good adv||and||now adv||can 2sg pres I||interr clt||first adv||comp||dat 1pl clt||tell 2sg pres P|
2 (VZh) what you heard from your mother, your grandmother,
|what sg n interr||2sg pres aux clt||listen sg f L.part I||from||mother f sg||dat refl clt||from||grandmother f||dat refl clt|
3 (VZh) and from old people [here] about how the village was settled?
|from||old def pl adj||people pl||for||village n def sg||how interr||3sg pres aux clt||be sg n L.part||settle pl L.part P|
4 (VZh) Do you remember [this]?
|remember 3sg pres I||interr clt||acc refl clt|
5 (a) [0:11] Hm, how it was settled. Well, earlier on this was a Turkish village,
|disc||how interr||3sg pres aux clt||be sg n L.part||settle sg n P.part P||nom n 3sg||3sg pres aux clt||be sg n L.part||more||early adv||Turkish n sg adj||village sg n|
6 (a) [0:16] and after that there were both Bulgarians and Turks.
|and||after||this sg n adj||L.part. exist||and||Bulgarian m||and||Turk pl m|
7 (a) [0:21] In fact, from the main road over to here is called the Turkish quarter,
|even adv||from||hes||highway sg n def||to||here adv||acc refl clt||say 3sg pres I||Turkish sg f def||neighborhood sg f|
8 (a) [0:26] and [this area] here is the Bulgarian quarter.
|and||here adv||3sg pres cop clt||Bulgarian sg f def adj||neighborhood sg f|
9 (VZh) Yes.
10 (a) [0:28] There were more Turks here, and Male –
|here adv||3pl pres aux clt||be pl L.part||more adv||Turk m||and||[...]|
11 (a) [0:32] and when our people, the Bulgarians, settled here, they bought land
|and||when conj||acc refl clt||settle pl L.part P||here adv||our pl def adj||people pl||Bulgarian pl m def||buy pl L.part P||dat refl clt||field f|
12 (a) [0:37] from the Turks, and the Turks went back to Turkey, and our people bought the land
|from||Turk m def pl||Turk pl m def||acc refl clt||come.home pl L.part P||towards||Turkey sg f place||and||our pl def adj||3pl pres aux clt||buy pl L.part P||field pl f|
13 (a) [0:43] from them. And our great-grandfathers, no, even further back ...
|from||acc 3pl||and||great.grandfather pl m def||no||disc||still||great.great.grandfather pl m|
14 (f) [0:48] And 90% of them didn’t have notarized documents …
|and||ninety||percent m ct||from||acc 3pl||not.have 3pl pres I||notarial pl adj||deed pl m|
15 (a) [0:51] Uh huh.
16 (f) [0:52] … because –
17 (a) [0:53] … had bought up everything …
|everything sg n adj||3pl pres aux clt||buy pl L.part P|
18 (VZh) Aha.
19 (a) [0:54] … from the Turks – fields and such.
|from||hes||Turk m def pl||field f def||and||thus adv|
20 (VZh) But that was after the liberation of Bulgaria.
|but||this sg n adj||after||liberation n def sg||3sg pres aux clt||be sg n L.part||of||Bulgaria sg f place|
21 (f) [1:00] But that was still Turkish times [for us].
|disc||still adv||by||time sg n||of||Turkish n sg adj|
22 (VZh) [Ah,] still –
23 (a) [1:01] Still in Turkish times.
|by||Turkish n adj||time sg n||still adv|
24 (VZh) Uh huh.
25 (a) [1:03] In the times of the Turks even…
|during||Turkish n adj||time sg n||even adv|
26 (f) [1:04] You know, [this area] here was liberated only in [nineteen-]twelve.
|disc||here adv||interr||know 2pl pres I||that conj||even adv||in||twelfth f adj||year f sg||acc refl clt||liberate 3pl pres|
27 (VZh) [Ah], here [only] since [nineteen-]twelve.
|here adv||from||twelfth f adj||year f sg|
28 (RA) Uh huh, uh huh.
29 (a) [1:10] In [nineteen-]twelve, and I was born in [nineteen-]seventeen. And –
|twelfth f adj||year sg f||nom 1sg||1sg pres cop clt||bear sg f P.part P||seventeenth f adj||year sg f||and|
30 (a) [1:16] the old ones, our forefathers, all knew Turkish because here
|this pl adj||old pl def adj||our pl def adj||great.grandfather pl m||all pl def adj||know 3pl impf I||Turkish m sg adj||because conj||here adv|
31 (a) [1:23] they lived together with the Turks and they all knew Turkish.
|3pl pres aux clt||live pl L.part I||with||Turk m def pl||together adv||and||know 3pl impf I||Turkish sg m adj||language m||all pl def adj|
32 (a) [1:28] So they bought up the land from the Turks and began to work [it].
|and||3pl pres aux clt||buy pl L.part P||field f||from||Turk pl m def||and||3pl pres aux clt||begin pl L.part P||comp||work 3pl pres I|
33 (a) [1:32] And the old ones were – they were close to the Turks,
|and||even adv||3pl impf cop||hes||old def adj||3pl impf cop||thus adv||
||with||Turk pl m def||close pl adj|
34 (a) [1:39] and each respected the other. And after that –
|respect 3pl impf I||acc refl clt||and||after||this sg n adj||hes||hes|
35 (f) [1:43] There wasn’t the kind of hostility they talk about there [in other places].
|neg exist||acc f 3sg clt||this sg f adj||hostility sg f||as rel||acc f 3sg clt||tell 3pl pres I||for||there adv|
36 (a) [1:45] [No,] there wasn’t, there [certainly] wasn’t.
37 (f) [1:47] [I know] because I’m from …
|nom 1sg||1sg pres cop clt||because||from|
38 (a) [1:48] Maybe elsewhere there was …
|elsewhere adv||can pres imprs||comp||3sg pres aux clt||be sg n L.part|
39 (f) [1:48] … the Plovdiv region, and it was much worse there.
|Plovdiv m def adj||region||there adv||3sg pres aux clt||be sg n L.part||more||frightening adv|
40 (a) [1:49] … hostility but here in the village my grandfather, and
|hostility sg f||but||here adv||in||village sg n||my sg m adj||my sg m def adj||grandfather sg m||and||here adv|
41 (a) [1:53] and when I came, I had – my great-grandfather liked the Turks.
|when conj||come 1sg aor P||have 1sg impf I||great.grandfather sg m||and||nom m 3sg||thus adv||dat refl clt||love 3sg impf I||Turk pl m def|
42 (f) [1:59] Yes.
43 (a) [1:59] There was even a Turk who came here to say goodbye
|even adv||one sg m adj||Turk sg m||come 3sg aor P||here adv||and||acc refl clt||say.goodbye 3sg aor I|
44 (a) [2:02] when he was leaving for Turkey. He came to sleep here at our house …
|when rel||comp||go 3sg pres I||in||Turkey sg f place||sleep 3sg aor I||here adv||at||acc 1pl|
45 (f) [2:04] Just a minute. You’re not going to need me, are you? She’s OK here?
|only adv||second sg f||nom 1sg||fut neg||comp||dat 2pl clt||be.necessary 1sg pres I||interr||nom f 3sg||disc||there adv|
46 (VZh) Yes, yes, yes.
47 (a) [2:09] … they took their farewells and we sent him off properly. There was no argument,
|bid.farewell 3pl aor I||acc refl clt||and||dat refl clt||acc m 3sg clt||send 1pl aor P||thus adv||fortunately adv||neg exist||neither||quarrel vbl.n I|
48 (a) [2:14] no nothing. But now it’s worse than the “Turkish times”, let me tell you! [laughter]
|neither||nothing sg n||now adv||more||bad adv||from||Turkish n sg adj||comp||dat 2pl clt||say 1sg pres P|
49 (VZh) [laughter]
50 (a) [2:20] Now people will destroy each other, they’re jealous, envious – it’s awful.
|now adv||people pl def||fut||acc refl clt||eat 3pl pres P||envious pl adj||envy 3pl pres I||dat refl clt||terror sg m|
51 (VZh) tì kàza za balkànskətə vojnà baštà ti učàstvəl li e v nèja
|nom 2sg||say 2sg aor P||for||Balkan sg f def adj||war sg f||father sg m||dat 2sg clt||partake sg m L.part I||interr clt||3sg pres aux clt||in||acc f 3sg|
52 (a) [2:31] Yes.
53 (VZh) What did he tell you about it?
|what sg n interr||dat 2sg clt||3sg pres aux clt||tell sg m L.part I||for||acc f 3sg|
54 (a) [2:33] Well, my father died. He died quite young. He died …
|disc||my sg m def adj||father sg m||die 3sg aor P||very||young sg m adj||die 3sg aor P|
55 (VZh) Hm.
56 (a) [2:37] … [when he was] forty-three years old. So from him –
|at||forty||and||three||year pl f||and||from||acc m 3sg|
57 (a) [2:44] what could he have told me? I remember that he was a soldier, he came here
|what sg n interr||comp||dat 1sg clt||3sg pres aux clt||tell sg m L.part I||soldier sg m||3sg impf cop||remember 1sg pres I||come 3sg aor P||here adv|
58 (a) [2:49] on leave, and after that, when the war was over – We were little!
|on||vacation sg f||and||after||this sg n adj||when inter.rel||finish 3sg aor P||war sg f def||nom 1pl||1pl impf cop||little pl adj|
59 (a) [2:55] Who cared about wars, and [all] that sort of thing?! [laughter]
|which sg m interr||acc refl clt||take.interest sg m L.part I||from||war sg f||and||from||this sg n adj||and||that sg n adj|
60 (RA) [laughter]
61 (a) [2:59] So. I was eighteen when my father died.
|disc||nom 1sg||1sg impf cop||at||eighteen||year pl f||father sg m||dat 1sg clt||when conj||die 3sg aor P|
62 (VZh) Your grandfather was still alive, I suppose?
|grandfather sg m||dat 2sg clt||still adv||3sg pres aux clt||be sg m L.part||alive sg m adj||surely adv|
63 (a) [3:07] Yes, my grandfather was alive.
|yes||grandfather sg m||3sg impf cop||alive sg m adj|
64 (VZh) Uh huh.
65 (a) [3:08] My grandfather was alive.
|grandfather sg m||3sg impf cop||alive sg m adj|
66 (VZh) And did your grandfather take part in [any] war?
|and||and||nom m 3sg||partake sg m L.part I||interr clt||3sg pres aux clt||grandfather sg m||dat 2sg clt||in||war sg f def|
67 (VZh) Did he go [off to war]?
|go sg m L.part I||interr clt||3sg pres aux clt|
68 (a) [3:14] I can’t say.
|neg||can 1sg pres I||dat 2sg clt||say inf P|
69 (VZh) He didn’t –
|neg||dat 2sg clt||3sg pres aux clt|
70 (a) [3:16] I can’t tell you.
|neg||can 1sg pres I||dat 2sg clt||say 1sg pres I|
71 (VZh) He didn’t talk to you about –
|neg||dat 2sg clt||3sg pres aux clt||tell sg m L.part I||for|
72 (a) [3:17] I didn’t ask, and he didn’t say. And that’s all there is.
|neg||1sg pres aux clt||acc refl clt||take.interest sg f L.part I||and||neg||dat 1sg clt||3sg pres aux clt||tell sg m L.part I||and||thus adv|
73 (VZh) Has the village Malevo always had this name, or
|all adv||this sg n adj||name sg n||interr clt||have 3sg impf I||village sg n def||Malevo sg n place||or|
74 (VZh) did it used to have some other name?
|more||early adv||have 3sg impf I||other sg n adj||name sg n|
75 (a) [3:26] It used to be Tekekyoy. It was called Tekekyoy, and after that Malevo.
|Tekekyoy sg n place||3sg impf cop||more||early adv||thus adv||acc refl clt||say 3sg impf I||Tekekyoy sg n place||and||after||this sg n adj||Malevo sg n place|
76 (VZh) Uh huh.
77 (a) [3:32] Its old name was Tekekyoy and then after that they changed the name to Malevo.
|old sg n def adj||dat n 3sg clt||name sg n||3sg impf cop||Tekekyoy sg n place||and||and||after||this sg n adj||Malevo sg n place||acc n 3sg clt||rename 3pl aor I|
78 (a) [3:37] but I remember it [as] Malevo back when it was Tekekyoy.
|but||nom 1sg||acc n 3sg clt||remember 1sg pres I||Malevo sg n place||disc||when interr||3sg pres aux clt||be sg n L.part||Tekekyoy sg m place|
79 (a) [3:40] I know that earlier it was Tekekyoy,
|more||early adv||know 1sg pres I||that conj||3sg pres aux clt||be sg n L.part||Tekekyoy sg n place|
80 (a) [3:42] but I know it as Malevo. And we even have
|but||nom 1sg||acc n 3sg clt||remember 1sg aor P||Malevo sg n place||yes||and||even adv||have 1pl pres I|
81 (a) [3:46] an area around here called Malevo, it’s fields.
|here adv||one sg f adj||locality sg f||acc refl clt||say 3sg pres I||Malevo sg n place||field pl f|
82 (RA) Uh huh.
83 (a) [3:52] We worked these fields; they’re called Malevo, the Malevo area.
|field pl f||work 1pl impf I||acc 3pl clt||acc refl clt||say 3pl pres I||Malevo sg n place||locality sg f def||Malevo sg n place|
84 (VZh) How do you remember the village [then]? Was it smaller than it is now?
|nom 2sg||how interr||2sg pres aux clt||acc n 3sg clt||remember sg f L.part P||village n def sg||more||little sg n adj||interr clt||3sg impf cop||from||now adv|
85 (a) [4:02] [No,] it was even bigger.
|more||big sg n adj||3sg impf cop||even adv|
86 (RA) Bigger!
|more||big sg n adj|
87 (a) [4:04] Now all the young people ran off to the city and [what’s] left of the village [is] small.
|now adv||young pl def adj||escape 3pl aor P||all pl def adj||in||city sg m def||and||remain 3sg aor P||village sg n def||little sg n adj|
88 (a) [4:09] Now we have lots of Pomaks. [If you include] Pomaks, the village is big. [laughter]
|now adv||Pomak m pl||have 1pl pres I||many adv||with||Pomak pl m def||3sg pres cop clt||big sg n adj|
89 (VZh) Where did the Pomaks come from, do you know?
|from.where interr||3pl pres aux clt||come pl L.part P||know 2sg pres I||interr clt||Pomak m def pl|
90 (a) [4:15] Well, from the Balkan [mountains], from the Rhodopes.
|disc||from||mountain sg m def||from||Rhodope pl f def|
91 (VZh) [Ah], from the Rhodope region.
|from||Rhodope pl f def|
92 (a) [4:19] Yes.
93 (VZh) Uh huh. They bought up land, so I suppose they work it here?
|disc||buy pl L.part P||3pl pres aux clt||land sg f||surely adv||here adv||work 3pl pres I|
94 (a) [4:25] Well, when the cooperative farms came in they took our fields.
|interr||when conj||become 3sg aor P||collective.farm sg n||our pl def adj||field pl f||acc 3pl clt||take 3pl aor P|
95 (a) [4:30] Our people, for example, we had [cough] lots of fields, but not enough hands to work [them].
|and||our pl def adj||people pl||for.example adv||nom 1pl||have 1pl impf I||many adv||field pl f||but||not.have 1pl pres I||work sg f adj||hand sg f|
96 (a) [4:37] so it all went off to the cooperative farm. And who would work them?
|and||everything sg n adj||go 3sg aor P||in||collective.farm sg n||and||which sg m interr||comp||acc 3pl clt||work 3pl pres I|
97 (a) [4:40] The Pomaks came and just took over. So we put everything –
|Pomak m def||come 3pl aor P||and||on||ready sg n def adj||and||nom 1pl||import 1pl aor P||everything sg n adj|
98 (a) [4:43] our cart, our oxen, our carriage, and everything we had –
|and||cart f sg||and||ox m pl||and||and||carriage sg f||and||what sg n rel||have 1pl impf I||inventory sg m|
99 (a) [4:48] we put it all into the cooperative farm. And the Pomaks came and
|everything sg n adj||acc n 3sg clt||import 1pl aor P||in||collective.farm sg n||and||Pomak m def||come 3pl aor P||and|
100 (a) [4:52] and [took] everything as a whole and began to work [it]. And that was it.
|and||everything sg n def adj||ready.made adv||and||begin 3pl aor P||comp||work 3pl pres I||and||thus adv|
101 (VZh) Uh – So you had [your own] fields before the cooperative farm came along.
|hes||mean 3sg pres I||nom 2pl||field f pl||2pl pres aux clt||have pl L.part I||before||comp||become 3sg pres P||collective.farm sg n def|
102 (a) [5:02] Yes, we had [our own] fields.
|yes||have 1pl impf I||field pl f|
103 (VZh) Hm, well, can you tell us how one –
|disc||disc||hort||comp||dat 1pl clt||tell 2sg pres P||how interr||acc refl clt||[ … ]|
104 (VZh) how you worked the fields back in those days?
|how interr||2pl pres aux clt||work pl L.part I||in||field sg f def||one sg n adj||time sg n|
105 (a) [5:08] Oof! [laughter] Heavy labor! [laughter] How could we not work? You get up in the morning [cough] –
|excl||big sg m adj||labor sg m||how interr||neg||work 1pl impf I||morning sg f||arise 2sg pres P|
106 (a) [5:17] we mostly worked with outsiders because we didn’t have enough workers [here].
|nom 1pl||mostly adv||with||foreign pl adj||people pl||work 1pl impf I||because conj||not.have 1pl pres I||work sg f adj||hand sg f|
107 (a) [5:21] My husband worked too, He had a sister, still a maiden,
|my sg m def adj||husband sg m||hes||and||nom m 3sg||work 3sg impf I||and||have 3sg impf I||sister sg f||girl sg n||3sg impf cop|
108 (a) [5:30] so when I married [in], there were three of us, plus my father-in-law.
|and||nom 1sg||when conj||acc refl clt||marry 1sg aor P||three def an.num||1pl impf cop||and||father.in.law sg m|
109 (a) [5:34] Also my mother-in-law here at home – someone has to be in the house, you know.
|and||mother.in.law sg f||here adv||at.home adv||interr||disc||and||at.home adv||must pres imprs||person sg m||comp||pres exist|
110 (RA) Uh huh.
111 (a) [5:39] We couldn’t work fields by ourselves, [it was] always
|and||neg||can 1pl impf I||nom 1pl||alone pl||comp||dat refl clt||work 1pl pres P||field pl f def||and||always adv|
112 (a) [5:43] with outsiders. We hired day-workers. The day-workers came and worked for us.
|with||foreign pl adj||people pl||catch 1pl impf I||day.worker pl m||day.worker pl m||come 3pl impf I||and||dat 1pl clt||work 3pl impf I|
113 (a) [5:49] The – the day-workers come in the morning, and food [had to be] ready for them.
|disc||[...]||[...]||day.worker pl m def||fut||come 3pl pres P||morning sg f||food sg n def||dat 3pl clt||ready sg n adj|
114 (VZh) What [sorts of crops] did you plant primarily?
|what sg n interr||sow 2pl impf I||most||much adv|
115 (a) [5:57] We mostly planted wheat and corn.
|most||much adv||sow 1pl impf I||wheat sg n||and||corn sg f|
116 (VZh) [Ah,] wheat and corn.
|wheat sg n||and||corn sg f|
117 (a) [6:01] Yes.
118 (VZh) What time [of year did you plant] the wheat?
|wheat sg n def||[...]||which sg n interr adj||time sg n|
119 (a) [6:03] We plant wheat in the autumn and gather it up in the summer.
|wheat sg n def||in||autumn sg f def||acc n 3sg clt||sow 1pl pres I||during||summer sg n def||acc n 3sg clt||gather 1pl pres I|
120 (a) [6:07] Right, in the summer. [So] in June and July, we start to reap
|thus adv||disc||during||summer sg n def||during||hes||June sg m||July sg m||and||begin 1pl pres I||comp||reap 1pl pres I|
121 (a) [6:12] [and] gather in the wheat. For corn, we plant it in the spring, and then
|gather 1pl pres I||wheat sg n def||but||corn sg f def||in.spring adv||acc f 3sg clt||sow 1pl impf I||and||hes|
122 (a) [6:18] pick it in the autumn. Now, during September is [when] we’re picking the corn.
|in||autumn sg f def||acc f 3sg clt||gather 1pl impf I||now adv||during||September sg m||3sg pres cop clt||corn sg f def||gather 1pl pres I|
123 (VZh) What did you used to call it in the old days? Did you call it “tsarevitsa” (corn)?
|how interr||acc f 3sg clt||say 1pl impf I||at||time sg n def||corn sg f||interr clt||dat f 3sg clt||call 1pl impf I|
124 (a) [6:25] “Rapka” (corn).
|corn f sg|
125 (VZh) Aha, you called it “rapka”
|corn sg f||dat f 3sg clt||call 2pl impf I||disc|
126 (a) [6:26] [laughter] “rapka”.
|corn f sg|
127 (VZh) And whose job was it to plant the fields?
|hes||and||whose sg f interr adj||work sg f||3sg pres cop clt||comp||sow 3sg pres P||field sg f def|
128 (VZh) The men’s or the women’s? Who went out to do the sowing?
|masculine sg f adj||interr clt||3sg pres cop clt||feminine sg f adj||interr clt||3sg pres cop clt||which sg m interr||go 3sg pres I||comp||sow 3sg pres I|
129 (a) [6:32] Well, let’s see. In the winter we spin. Back then everything was spun and woven.
|disc||see pl imv P||now adv||during||winter sg f def||spin 1pl pres I||then adv||everything sg n def adj||3sg impf cop||spin sg n P.part I||and||weave sg n P.part I|
130 (a) [6:40] The women spin and – and weave, and the men look after the animals.
|woman pl f def||spin 3pl pres I||and||[...]||weave 3pl pres I||man pl m def||look 3pl pres I||livestock sg m def|
131 (a) [6:44] In the spring, the men start to plow, and the women weave.
|in.spring adv||man pl m def||begin 3pl pres I||comp||plow 3pl pres I||woman pl f def||weave 3pl pres I|
132 (a) [6:48] All the [thread] they’ve spun now needs to be woven [into fabric],
|this sg n adj||which sg n rel||3pl pres aux clt||spin pl L.part P||must pres imprs||comp||acc n 3sg clt||weave 3pl pres P|
133 (a) [6:51] because all our clothes were home-woven, all our clothes were home-made
|because conj||wear 1pl impf I||everything sg n adj||weave sg n P.part I||domestic sg n adj||all pl def adj||clothing pl f||3pl impf cop||domestic pl adj|
134 (a) [6:55] there wasn’t anything like now, ready-made and bought [at the store].
|impf neg exist||like||now adv||ready pl adj||and||store.bought sg n adj||disc|
135 (a) [6:59] Then the men start the plowing, and by the time they finish plowing
|and||then adv||and||man pl m def||begin 3pl pres I||comp||plow 3pl pres I||and||until conj||comp||comp||plow 3pl pres P|
136 (a) [7:04] and get the fields ready, we have to be ready, to have finished all our weaving.
|comp||prepare 3pl pres P||field pl f def||nom 1pl||must pres imprs||comp||1pl pres cop clt||ready pl adj||comp||1pl pres aux clt||weave pl L.part P|
137 (a) [7:08] Whatever we’ve woven or not woven, we have to start work [in the fields].
|already adv||this sg n adj||what sg n rel||[...]||weave pl L.part P||neg||weave pl L.part P||begin 1pl pres I||comp||work 1pl pres I|
138 (a) [7:12] First of all we plant onions, and after onions, then beans.
|most||early adv||sow 1pl pres P||onion sg m def||after||onion sg m def||beans sg m def|
139 (a) [7:16] and after the beans, then melons, and after the melons, then “tsarevitsa” (corn).
|after||beans sg m def||melon.field sg m def||after||melon.field sg m def||corn sg f def|
140 (VZh) “rapka”
|corn sg f def|
141 (a) [7:21] Yes, “rapka”, and then, we begin already to tamp the soil. First,
|yes||corn sg f def||and||after||this sg n adj||begin 1pl pres I||already adv||comp||tamp 1pl pres I||most||first adv|
142 (a) [7:26] we tamp it around the onions. Then we hoe the beans, we hoe the corn –
|onion sg m def||comp||acc refl clt||tamp 3sg pres P||beans sg m def||comp||acc refl clt||hoe 3sg pres P||corn sg f def||comp||acc refl clt||hoe 3sg pres P|
143 (a) [7:31] and – and we hoe the cotton. We also planted cotton.
|and||and||cotton sg m def||comp||acc refl clt||hoe 3sg pres P||and||cotton sg m||sow 1pl impf I|
144 (VZh) Ah, you planted cotton too?
|disc||and||cotton sg m||2pl pres aux clt||sow pl L.part I|
145 (a) [7:35] Yes, we also planted cotton, and after that it’s time to hoe the corn.
|yes||and||cotton sg m||sow 1pl impf I||and||after||this sg n adj||corn sg f def||already adv||comp||hoe 1pl pres I|
146 (a) [7:46] and all these things come in order: first one, then the next, first one, then the next.
|and||nom 3pl||acc refl clt||work pl f def||arrange 3pl pres I||one sg f adj||after||other sg f adj||one sg f adj||after||other sg f adj|
147 (a) [7:46] You go to the field in the morning, come back in the evening, get up in the morning
|morning sg f||go 2sg pres I||to||field sg m def||evening sg f||acc refl clt||return 2sg pres I||morning sg f||arise 2sg pres I|
148 (a) [7:49] go again to the field, come back in the evening – all without a break.
|again adv||go 2sg pres I||to||field sg m def||evening sg f||acc refl clt||return 2sg pres I||continuously adv||mean 3sg pres I|
149 (a) [7:52] No day goes by [but you work]. Only on Sunday would we stop a bit
|day sg m||neg||acc refl clt||pass 3sg pres I||only adv||on||Sunday sg m adj||day sg m||remain 1pl impf I||by||little adv|
150 (a) [7:56] to take a rest. And all that was tremendous work. Tremendous.
|comp||rest 1pl pres P||and||this sg n adj||3sg impf cop||everything sg n adj||big sg m adj||labor sg m||3sg impf cop||big sg m adj|
151 (VZh) Did you sell the cotton, or did you [grow it] for yourselves?
|cotton sg m def||sell pl L.part I||interr clt||2pl pres aux clt||acc m 3sg clt||or||for||acc 2pl|
152 (a) [8:03] At first we planted just enough cotton for us at home,
|cotton sg m def||from||beginning sg n def||sow 1pl impf I||how.much rel||for||at.home adv|
153 (VZh) Uh huh.
154 (a) [8:08] After that they ordered us to plant a lot of cotton.
|after||this sg n adj||acc 1pl clt||oblige 3pl aor P||comp||sow 1pl pres I||by||much adv||cotton sg m|
155 (a) [8:15] That’s very much work. You need to tamp it down with an adze,
|and||dat m 3sg||3sg pres cop clt||work sg f def||much adv||nom m 3sg||want 3sg pres I||tamp vbl.n I||with||adze sg f def|
156 (a) [8:17] and [working] with an adze is not easy. And we even had a field here nearby,
|with||adze sg f def||neg||go.smoothly 3sg pres I||and||even adv||have 1pl impf I||one sg f adj||field sg f||here adv||in||locality sg f def|
157 (a) [8:23] it was called Hrukli. There, they ordered us to plant 12 decares in cotton.
|Hrukli sg m place||acc refl clt||say 3sg impf I||twelve||decare ct m||oblige 3pl aor P||acc 1pl clt||comp||acc f 3sg clt||sow 1pl pres I||cotton sg m|
158 (a) [8:28] Fine, but we didn’t have the work force, we had to hire day-workers
|well adv||but||nom 1pl||not.have 1pl pres I||work sg f adj||hand sg f||must pres imprs||comp||catch 1pl pres I||day.worker pl m|
159 (a) [8:32] to work the cotton fields, and then my father-in-law gave [out the word]:
|comp||comp||work 1pl pres P||this sg m adj||cotton sg m||then adv||father.in.law sg m def||give 3sg aor P|
160 (a) [8:37] Whoever had hands to work but no fields should come plant [the fields], and –
|who sg m rel||have 3sg pres I||work sg f adj||hand sg f||but||not.have 3pl pres I||field pl f||comp||acc m 3sg||sow 3pl pres P||and|
161 (a) [8:41] and use them. So then they’d gather up the cotton for the farmer’s union,
|and||comp||acc m 3sg clt||use 3pl pres I||and||and||then adv||hes||gather 3pl impf I||cotton sg m def||in||cooperative.farm sg f def|
162 (a) [8:52] and we’d take it [there]. When we gather it up to dry it, and to take it
|carry 1pl impf I||cotton sg m def||when inter.rel||acc m 3sg clt||gather 1pl pres I||comp||acc m 3sg clt||dry 1pl pres P||and||comp||acc m 3sg clt||bring 1pl pres P|
163 (a) [8:52] to the union, they’d give us money. They’d pay us for it,
|in||cooperative.farm sg f def||and||dat 1pl clt||give 3pl impf I||on||money pl.t||pay 3pl impf I||acc m 3sg clt||disc|
164 (a) [8:57] and would even give us yarn or cloth for it, whatever you asked for.
|and||even adv||and||give 3pl impf I||yarn sg f||fabric pl m||give 3pl impf I||in.exchange||which sg m interr||what sg n rel||want 3sg impf I|
165 (a) [9:01] Yarn if you want, cloth if you want, or just if you want them to pay you money.
|if conj||want 2sg pres I||yarn sg f||if conj||want 2sg pres I||fabric pl m||if conj||want 2sg pres I||money pl.t||comp||dat 2sg clt||give 3pl pres P|
166 (VZh) Hm.
167 (a) [9:07] That’s how it was. That was before we joining the cooperative farm.
|thus adv||3sg impf cop||this sg n adj||before||comp||enter 3sg pres P||in||collective.farm sg n|
168 (a) [9:13] But then the cooperative farm came and took the fields [laughter]
|and||after||this sg n adj||but||cooperative.farm sg n def||come 3sg aor P||take 3pl aor P||field pl f def|
169 (a) [9:18] And whoever wanted to go to work there, to do [it that way] – they did.
|and||who sg m rel||want 3sg pres I||comp||go 3sg pres P||comp||work 3sg pres I||what sg m rel||want 3sg pres I||comp||do 3sg pres I||thus adv|
170 (VZh) So you did spinning and weaving until spring, and after spring,
|disc||to||spring sg f def||weave vbl.n I||spin vbl.n I||and||after adv||from||spring sg f def||when conj|
171 (VZh) after the wheat sprouted, what did you do with it?
|when conj||acc refl clt||[...]||appear 3sg pres P||already adv||this sg n adj||wheat sg n def||what sg n interr||acc n 3sg clt||do 2pl aor I|
172 (a) [9:32] Well, the wheat – the wheat grows
|disc||wheat sg n def||dat refl clt||hes||wheat sg n def||nom n 3sg||dat refl clt||grow 3sg pres I|
173 (a) [9:35] it grows the whole summer. Lately they’ve begun to irrigate it,
|during||entire sg n def adj||summer sg n||dat refl clt||grow 3sg pres I||and||lately adv||begin 3pl aor P||comp||acc n 3sg clt||water 3pl pres I|
174 (a) [9:40] but when we had our own [fields] there was no irrigation.
|but||on||private sg n adj||when inter.rel||1pl impf cop||impf neg exist||water vbl.n I|
175 (a) [9:43] [Now] they fertilize it and water it, and when it’s time to gather it,
|fertilize 3pl pres I||acc n 3sg clt||water 3pl pres I||acc n 3sg clt||and||when rel||come 3sg pres P||for||gather vbl.n I|
176 (a) [9:46] when it’s ripened nicely, we gather it up and that’s done.
|when rel||ripen 3sg pres P||well adv||and||acc n 3sg clt||gather 1pl pres I||and||thus adv|
177 (a) [9:49] There’s no problem with wheat, you just sow it.
|for||wheat sg n def||neg exist||problem sg m||wheat sg n def||only adv||acc refl clt||sow 3sg pres I|
178 (a) [9:53] You don’t need to hoe it, or dig it, or anything.
|nom n 3sg||neither||acc refl clt||hoe 3sg pres I||neither||acc refl clt||dig 3sg pres I||neither||nothing sg n|
179 (VZh) Uh huh.
180 (a) [9:57] Corn, you have to dig, you have to start the plowing –
|hes||corn sg f def||acc refl clt||dig 3sg pres I||plow 3sg pres I||acc refl clt|
181 (a) [10:00] You’ve got to go out to work the corn at least three times,
|most||little adv||three||time pl m||must pres imprs||comp||acc refl clt||go 3sg pres P||by||corn sg f def|
182 (a) [10:04] it needs a lot more work. And in the end you bring it in.
|nom f 3sg||have 3sg pres I||more adv||work sg f||and||at||end sg m def||acc refl clt||gather 3sg pres I|
183 (VZh) And when it’s time for harvest, when [that time] comes, what do you do?
|and||when conj||come 3sg pres P||disc||to||harvest sg f||when conj||come 3sg pres P||what sg n interr||acc refl clt||work 3sg pres I|
184 (a) [10:12] When harvest comes, we reap with sickles, we reap along with the day-workers
|harvest sg f||when inter.rel||come 3sg pres P||reap 1pl pres I||with|