Malevo/Xsk 1

1 (VZh)       OK. And now, can you first tell us

disc
good adv
and
now adv can 2sg pres I
interr clt
first adv
comp
dat 1pl clt
tell 2sg pres P

2 (VZh)       what you heard from your mother, your grandmother,

what sg n interr
2sg pres aux clt
listen sg f L.part I
from
mother f sg
dat refl clt
from
grandmother f
dat refl clt

3 (VZh)       and from old people [here] about how the village was settled?

from
old def pl adj people pl
for
village n def sg how interr
3sg pres aux clt
be sg n L.part settle pl L.part P

4 (VZh)       Do you remember [this]?

remember 3sg pres I
interr clt
acc refl clt

5 (a) [0:11]      Hm, how it was settled. Well, earlier on this was a Turkish village,

disc how interr
3sg pres aux clt
be sg n L.part settle sg n P.part P nom n 3sg
3sg pres aux clt
be sg n L.part more early adv Turkish n sg adj village sg n

6 (a) [0:16]      and after that there were both Bulgarians and Turks.

and
after this sg n adj L.part. exist
and
Bulgarian m
and
Turk pl m

7 (a) [0:21]      In fact, from the main road over to here is called the Turkish quarter,

even adv
from
hes
highway sg n def
to
here adv
acc refl clt
say 3sg pres I Turkish sg f def neighborhood sg f

8 (a) [0:26]      and [this area] here is the Bulgarian quarter.

and here adv
3sg pres cop clt
Bulgarian sg f def adj neighborhood sg f

9 (VZh)       Yes.

yes

10 (a) [0:28]      There were more Turks here, and Male –

here adv
3pl pres aux clt
be pl L.part more adv Turk m
and
[...]

11 (a) [0:32]      and when our people, the Bulgarians, settled here, they bought land

and
when conj
acc refl clt
settle pl L.part P here adv our pl def adj people pl Bulgarian pl m def buy pl L.part P dat refl clt field f

12 (a) [0:37]      from the Turks, and the Turks went back to Turkey, and our people bought the land

from
Turk m def pl Turk pl m def
acc refl clt
come.home pl L.part P towards Turkey sg f place and our pl def adj
3pl pres aux clt
buy pl L.part P field pl f

13 (a) [0:43]      from them. And our great-grandfathers, no, even further back ...

from
acc 3pl
and
great.grandfather pl m def no
disc
still great.great.grandfather pl m

14 (f) [0:48]      And 90% of them didn’t have notarized documents …

and
ninety percent m ct
from
acc 3pl not.have 3pl pres I notarial pl adj deed pl m

15 (a) [0:51]      Uh huh.

bkch

16 (f) [0:52]      … because –

because conj

17 (a) [0:53]      … had bought up everything …

everything sg n adj
3pl pres aux clt
buy pl L.part P

18 (VZh)       Aha.

bkch

19 (a) [0:54]      … from the Turks – fields and such.

from
hes
Turk m def pl field f def
and
thus adv

20 (VZh)       But that was after the liberation of Bulgaria.

but
this sg n adj after liberation n def sg
3sg pres aux clt
be sg n L.part
of
Bulgaria sg f place

21 (f) [1:00]      But that was still Turkish times [for us].

disc
still adv
by
time sg n
of
Turkish n sg adj

22 (VZh)       [Ah,] still –

still adv
[...]

23 (a) [1:01]      Still in Turkish times.

by
Turkish n adj time sg n still adv

24 (VZh)       Uh huh.

bkch

25 (a) [1:03]      In the times of the Turks even…

during Turkish n adj time sg n even adv

26 (f) [1:04]      You know, [this area] here was liberated only in [nineteen-]twelve.

disc
here adv interr know 2pl pres I
that conj
even adv
in
twelfth f adj year f sg
acc refl clt
liberate 3pl pres

27 (VZh)       [Ah], here [only] since [nineteen-]twelve.

here adv
from
twelfth f adj year f sg

28 (RA)       Uh huh, uh huh.

bkch

29 (a) [1:10]      In [nineteen-]twelve, and I was born in [nineteen-]seventeen. And –

twelfth f adj year sg f nom 1sg 1sg pres cop clt bear sg f P.part P seventeenth f adj year sg f
and

30 (a) [1:16]      the old ones, our forefathers, all knew Turkish because here

this pl adj old pl def adj our pl def adj great.grandfather pl m all pl def adj know 3pl impf I Turkish m sg adj because conj here adv

31 (a) [1:23]      they lived together with the Turks and they all knew Turkish.

3pl pres aux clt
live pl L.part I with
Turk m def pl together adv
and
know 3pl impf I Turkish sg m adj language m all pl def adj

32 (a) [1:28]      So they bought up the land from the Turks and began to work [it].

and
3pl pres aux clt
buy pl L.part P field f
from
Turk pl m def
and
3pl pres aux clt
begin pl L.part P
comp
work 3pl pres I

33 (a) [1:32]      And the old ones were – they were close to the Turks,

and
even adv 3pl impf cop
hes
old def adj 3pl impf cop thus adv
hes
with
Turk pl m def close pl adj

34 (a) [1:39]      and each respected the other. And after that –

respect 3pl impf I
acc refl clt
and
after this sg n adj
hes
hes

35 (f) [1:43]      There wasn’t the kind of hostility they talk about there [in other places].

neg exist
acc f 3sg clt
this sg f adj hostility sg f as rel
acc f 3sg clt
tell 3pl pres I
for
there adv

36 (a) [1:45]      [No,] there wasn’t, there [certainly] wasn’t.

yes
disc
neg exist

37 (f) [1:47]      [I know] because I’m from …

nom 1sg 1sg pres cop clt because
from

38 (a) [1:48]      Maybe elsewhere there was …

elsewhere adv can pres imprs
comp
3sg pres aux clt
be sg n L.part

39 (f) [1:48]      … the Plovdiv region, and it was much worse there.

Plovdiv m def adj region there adv
3sg pres aux clt
be sg n L.part more frightening adv

40 (a) [1:49]      … hostility but here in the village my grandfather, and

hostility sg f but here adv in
village sg n my sg m adj my sg m def adj grandfather sg m
and
here adv

41 (a) [1:53]      and when I came, I had – my great-grandfather liked the Turks.

when conj come 1sg aor P have 1sg impf I great.grandfather sg m
and
nom m 3sg thus adv
dat refl clt
love 3sg impf I Turk pl m def

42 (f) [1:59]      Yes.

yes

43 (a) [1:59]      There was even a Turk who came here to say goodbye

even adv one sg m adj Turk sg m come 3sg aor P here adv
and
acc refl clt
say.goodbye 3sg aor I

44 (a) [2:02]      when he was leaving for Turkey. He came to sleep here at our house …

when rel
comp
go 3sg pres I in
Turkey sg f place sleep 3sg aor I here adv
at
acc 1pl

45 (f) [2:04]      Just a minute. You’re not going to need me, are you? She’s OK here?

only adv second sg f nom 1sg fut neg
comp
dat 2pl clt
be.necessary 1sg pres I interr nom f 3sg disc there adv

46 (VZh)       Yes, yes, yes.

yes yes yes

47 (a) [2:09]      … they took their farewells and we sent him off properly. There was no argument,

bid.farewell 3pl aor I
acc refl clt
and
dat refl clt
acc m 3sg clt
send 1pl aor P thus adv fortunately adv neg exist
neither
quarrel vbl.n I

48 (a) [2:14]      no nothing. But now it’s worse than the “Turkish times”, let me tell you! [laughter]

neither
nothing sg n now adv more bad adv
from
Turkish n sg adj
comp
dat 2pl clt
say 1sg pres P

49 (VZh)       [laughter]

50 (a) [2:20]      Now people will destroy each other, they’re jealous, envious – it’s awful.

now adv people pl def fut
acc refl clt
eat 3pl pres P envious pl adj envy 3pl pres I
dat refl clt
terror sg m

51 (VZh)       tì kàza za balkànskətə vojnà baštà ti učàstvəl li e v nèja

nom 2sg say 2sg aor P
for
Balkan sg f def adj war sg f father sg m
dat 2sg clt
partake sg m L.part I
interr clt
3sg pres aux clt
in
acc f 3sg

52 (a) [2:31]      Yes.

yes

53 (VZh)       What did he tell you about it?

what sg n interr
dat 2sg clt
3sg pres aux clt
tell sg m L.part I
for
acc f 3sg

54 (a) [2:33]      Well, my father died. He died quite young. He died …

disc my sg m def adj father sg m die 3sg aor P very young sg m adj die 3sg aor P

55 (VZh)       Hm.

bkch

56 (a) [2:37]      … [when he was] forty-three years old. So from him –

at
forty
and
three year pl f
and
from
acc m 3sg

57 (a) [2:44]      what could he have told me? I remember that he was a soldier, he came here

what sg n interr
comp
dat 1sg clt
3sg pres aux clt
tell sg m L.part I soldier sg m 3sg impf cop remember 1sg pres I come 3sg aor P here adv

58 (a) [2:49]      on leave, and after that, when the war was over – We were little!

on
vacation sg f
and
after this sg n adj
when inter.rel
finish 3sg aor P war sg f def nom 1pl 1pl impf cop little pl adj

59 (a) [2:55]      Who cared about wars, and [all] that sort of thing?! [laughter]

which sg m interr
acc refl clt
take.interest sg m L.part I
from
war sg f
and
from
this sg n adj
and
that sg n adj

60 (RA)       [laughter]

61 (a) [2:59]      So. I was eighteen when my father died.

disc
nom 1sg 1sg impf cop
at
eighteen year pl f father sg m
dat 1sg clt
when conj die 3sg aor P

62 (VZh)       Your grandfather was still alive, I suppose?

grandfather sg m
dat 2sg clt
still adv
3sg pres aux clt
be sg m L.part alive sg m adj surely adv

63 (a) [3:07]      Yes, my grandfather was alive.

yes grandfather sg m 3sg impf cop alive sg m adj

64 (VZh)       Uh huh.

bkch

65 (a) [3:08]      My grandfather was alive.

grandfather sg m 3sg impf cop alive sg m adj

66 (VZh)       And did your grandfather take part in [any] war?

and
and
nom m 3sg partake sg m L.part I
interr clt
3sg pres aux clt
grandfather sg m
dat 2sg clt
in
war sg f def

67 (VZh)       Did he go [off to war]?

go sg m L.part I
interr clt
3sg pres aux clt

68 (a) [3:14]      I can’t say.

neg
can 1sg pres I
dat 2sg clt
say inf P

69 (VZh)       He didn’t –

neg
dat 2sg clt
3sg pres aux clt

70 (a) [3:16]      I can’t tell you.

neg
can 1sg pres I
dat 2sg clt
say 1sg pres I

71 (VZh)       He didn’t talk to you about –

neg
dat 2sg clt
3sg pres aux clt
tell sg m L.part I
for

72 (a) [3:17]      I didn’t ask, and he didn’t say. And that’s all there is.

neg
1sg pres aux clt
acc refl clt
take.interest sg f L.part I
and
neg
dat 1sg clt
3sg pres aux clt
tell sg m L.part I
and
thus adv

73 (VZh)       Has the village Malevo always had this name, or

all adv this sg n adj name sg n
interr clt
have 3sg impf I village sg n def Malevo sg n place
or

74 (VZh)       did it used to have some other name?

more early adv have 3sg impf I other sg n adj name sg n

75 (a) [3:26]      It used to be Tekekyoy. It was called Tekekyoy, and after that Malevo.

Tekekyoy sg n place 3sg impf cop more early adv thus adv
acc refl clt
say 3sg impf I Tekekyoy sg n place
and
after this sg n adj Malevo sg n place

76 (VZh)       Uh huh.

bkch

77 (a) [3:32]      Its old name was Tekekyoy and then after that they changed the name to Malevo.

old sg n def adj
dat n 3sg clt
name sg n 3sg impf cop Tekekyoy sg n place
and
and after this sg n adj Malevo sg n place
acc n 3sg clt
rename 3pl aor I

78 (a) [3:37]      but I remember it [as] Malevo back when it was Tekekyoy.

but nom 1sg
acc n 3sg clt
remember 1sg pres I Malevo sg n place disc when interr
3sg pres aux clt
be sg n L.part Tekekyoy sg m place

79 (a) [3:40]      I know that earlier it was Tekekyoy,

more early adv know 1sg pres I
that conj
3sg pres aux clt
be sg n L.part Tekekyoy sg n place

80 (a) [3:42]      but I know it as Malevo. And we even have

but nom 1sg
acc n 3sg clt
remember 1sg aor P Malevo sg n place yes
and
even adv have 1pl pres I

81 (a) [3:46]      an area around here called Malevo, it’s fields.

here adv one sg f adj locality sg f
acc refl clt
say 3sg pres I Malevo sg n place field pl f

82 (RA)       Uh huh.

bkch

83 (a) [3:52]      We worked these fields; they’re called Malevo, the Malevo area.

field pl f work 1pl impf I
acc 3pl clt
acc refl clt
say 3pl pres I Malevo sg n place locality sg f def Malevo sg n place

84 (VZh)       How do you remember the village [then]? Was it smaller than it is now?

nom 2sg how interr
2sg pres aux clt
acc n 3sg clt
remember sg f L.part P village n def sg more little sg n adj
interr clt
3sg impf cop
from
now adv

85 (a) [4:02]      [No,] it was even bigger.

more big sg n adj 3sg impf cop even adv

86 (RA)       Bigger!

more big sg n adj

87 (a) [4:04]      Now all the young people ran off to the city and [what’s] left of the village [is] small.

now adv young pl def adj escape 3pl aor P all pl def adj
in
city sg m def
and
remain 3sg aor P village sg n def little sg n adj

88 (a) [4:09]      Now we have lots of Pomaks. [If you include] Pomaks, the village is big. [laughter]

now adv Pomak m pl have 1pl pres I many adv
with
Pomak pl m def
3sg pres cop clt
big sg n adj

89 (VZh)       Where did the Pomaks come from, do you know?

from.where interr
3pl pres aux clt
come pl L.part P know 2sg pres I
interr clt
Pomak m def pl

90 (a) [4:15]      Well, from the Balkan [mountains], from the Rhodopes.

disc
from
mountain sg m def
from
Rhodope pl f def

91 (VZh)       [Ah], from the Rhodope region.

from Rhodope pl f def

92 (a) [4:19]      Yes.

yes

93 (VZh)       Uh huh. They bought up land, so I suppose they work it here?

disc
buy pl L.part P
3pl pres aux clt
land sg f surely adv here adv work 3pl pres I

94 (a) [4:25]      Well, when the cooperative farms came in they took our fields.

interr when conj become 3sg aor P collective.farm sg n our pl def adj field pl f
acc 3pl clt
take 3pl aor P

95 (a) [4:30]      Our people, for example, we had [cough] lots of fields, but not enough hands to work [them].

and
our pl def adj people pl for.example adv nom 1pl have 1pl impf I many adv field pl f but not.have 1pl pres I work sg f adj hand sg f

96 (a) [4:37]      so it all went off to the cooperative farm. And who would work them?

and
everything sg n adj go 3sg aor P in
collective.farm sg n
and
which sg m interr
comp
acc 3pl clt
work 3pl pres I

97 (a) [4:40]      The Pomaks came and just took over. So we put everything –

Pomak m def come 3pl aor P
and
on
ready sg n def adj
and
nom 1pl import 1pl aor P everything sg n adj

98 (a) [4:43]      our cart, our oxen, our carriage, and everything we had –

and
cart f sg
and
ox m pl
and
and
carriage sg f
and
what sg n rel have 1pl impf I inventory sg m

99 (a) [4:48]      we put it all into the cooperative farm. And the Pomaks came and

everything sg n adj
acc n 3sg clt
import 1pl aor P
in
collective.farm sg n
and
Pomak m def come 3pl aor P
and

100 (a) [4:52]      and [took] everything as a whole and began to work [it]. And that was it.

and
everything sg n def adj ready.made adv
and
begin 3pl aor P
comp
work 3pl pres I
and
thus adv

101 (VZh)       Uh – So you had [your own] fields before the cooperative farm came along.

hes
mean 3sg pres I nom 2pl field f pl
2pl pres aux clt
have pl L.part I before
comp
become 3sg pres P collective.farm sg n def

102 (a) [5:02]      Yes, we had [our own] fields.

yes have 1pl impf I field pl f

103 (VZh)       Hm, well, can you tell us how one –

disc
disc
hort
comp
dat 1pl clt
tell 2sg pres P
how interr
acc refl clt
[ … ]

104 (VZh)       how you worked the fields back in those days?

how interr
2pl pres aux clt
work pl L.part I
in
field sg f def one sg n adj time sg n

105 (a) [5:08]      Oof! [laughter] Heavy labor! [laughter] How could we not work? You get up in the morning [cough] –

excl big sg m adj labor sg m how interr
neg
work 1pl impf I morning sg f arise 2sg pres P

106 (a) [5:17]      we mostly worked with outsiders because we didn’t have enough workers [here].

nom 1pl mostly adv with
foreign pl adj people pl work 1pl impf I because conj not.have 1pl pres I work sg f adj hand sg f

107 (a) [5:21]      My husband worked too, He had a sister, still a maiden,

my sg m def adj husband sg m
hes
and
nom m 3sg work 3sg impf I
and
have 3sg impf I sister sg f girl sg n 3sg impf cop

108 (a) [5:30]      so when I married [in], there were three of us, plus my father-in-law.

and
nom 1sg when conj
acc refl clt
marry 1sg aor P three def an.num 1pl impf cop
and
father.in.law sg m

109 (a) [5:34]      Also my mother-in-law here at home – someone has to be in the house, you know.

and
mother.in.law sg f here adv at.home adv interr disc
and
at.home adv must pres imprs person sg m
comp
pres exist

110 (RA)       Uh huh.

bkch

111 (a) [5:39]      We couldn’t work fields by ourselves, [it was] always

and
neg
can 1pl impf I nom 1pl alone pl
comp
dat refl clt
work 1pl pres P field pl f def
and
always adv

112 (a) [5:43]      with outsiders. We hired day-workers. The day-workers came and worked for us.

with
foreign pl adj people pl catch 1pl impf I day.worker pl m day.worker pl m come 3pl impf I
and
dat 1pl clt
work 3pl impf I

113 (a) [5:49]      The – the day-workers come in the morning, and food [had to be] ready for them.

disc
[...]
[...]
day.worker pl m def fut come 3pl pres P morning sg f food sg n def
dat 3pl clt
ready sg n adj

114 (VZh)       What [sorts of crops] did you plant primarily?

what sg n interr sow 2pl impf I most much adv

115 (a) [5:57]      We mostly planted wheat and corn.

most much adv sow 1pl impf I wheat sg n
and
corn sg f

116 (VZh)       [Ah,] wheat and corn.

wheat sg n
and
corn sg f

117 (a) [6:01]      Yes.

yes

118 (VZh)       What time [of year did you plant] the wheat?

wheat sg n def
[...]
which sg n interr adj time sg n

119 (a) [6:03]      We plant wheat in the autumn and gather it up in the summer.

wheat sg n def
in
autumn sg f def
acc n 3sg clt
sow 1pl pres I during summer sg n def
acc n 3sg clt
gather 1pl pres I

120 (a) [6:07]      Right, in the summer. [So] in June and July, we start to reap

thus adv
disc
during summer sg n def during
hes
June sg m July sg m
and
begin 1pl pres I
comp
reap 1pl pres I

121 (a) [6:12]      [and] gather in the wheat. For corn, we plant it in the spring, and then

gather 1pl pres I wheat sg n def but corn sg f def in.spring adv
acc f 3sg clt
sow 1pl impf I and
hes

122 (a) [6:18]      pick it in the autumn. Now, during September is [when] we’re picking the corn.

in
autumn sg f def
acc f 3sg clt
gather 1pl impf I now adv during September sg m
3sg pres cop clt
corn sg f def gather 1pl pres I

123 (VZh)       What did you used to call it in the old days? Did you call it “tsarevitsa” (corn)?

how interr
acc f 3sg clt
say 1pl impf I
at
time sg n def corn sg f
interr clt
dat f 3sg clt
call 1pl impf I

124 (a) [6:25]      “Rapka” (corn).

corn f sg

125 (VZh)       Aha, you called it “rapka”

corn sg f
dat f 3sg clt
call 2pl impf I disc

126 (a) [6:26]      [laughter] “rapka”.

corn f sg

127 (VZh)       And whose job was it to plant the fields?

hes
and
whose sg f interr adj work sg f
3sg pres cop clt
comp
sow 3sg pres P field sg f def

128 (VZh)       The men’s or the women’s? Who went out to do the sowing?

masculine sg f adj
interr clt
3sg pres cop clt
feminine sg f adj
interr clt
3sg pres cop clt
which sg m interr go 3sg pres I
comp
sow 3sg pres I

129 (a) [6:32]      Well, let’s see. In the winter we spin. Back then everything was spun and woven.

disc see pl imv P now adv during winter sg f def spin 1pl pres I then adv everything sg n def adj 3sg impf cop spin sg n P.part I
and
weave sg n P.part I

130 (a) [6:40]      The women spin and – and weave, and the men look after the animals.

woman pl f def spin 3pl pres I
and
[...]
weave 3pl pres I man pl m def look 3pl pres I livestock sg m def

131 (a) [6:44]      In the spring, the men start to plow, and the women weave.

in.spring adv man pl m def begin 3pl pres I
comp
plow 3pl pres I woman pl f def weave 3pl pres I

132 (a) [6:48]      All the [thread] they’ve spun now needs to be woven [into fabric],

this sg n adj which sg n rel
3pl pres aux clt
spin pl L.part P must pres imprs
comp
acc n 3sg clt weave 3pl pres P

133 (a) [6:51]      because all our clothes were home-woven, all our clothes were home-made

because conj wear 1pl impf I everything sg n adj weave sg n P.part I domestic sg n adj all pl def adj clothing pl f 3pl impf cop domestic pl adj

134 (a) [6:55]      there wasn’t anything like now, ready-made and bought [at the store].

impf neg exist like now adv ready pl adj
and
store.bought sg n adj disc

135 (a) [6:59]      Then the men start the plowing, and by the time they finish plowing

and
then adv and man pl m def begin 3pl pres I
comp
plow 3pl pres I
and
until conj
comp
comp
plow 3pl pres P

136 (a) [7:04]      and get the fields ready, we have to be ready, to have finished all our weaving.

comp
prepare 3pl pres P field pl f def nom 1pl must pres imprs
comp
1pl pres cop clt
ready pl adj
comp
1pl pres aux clt
weave pl L.part P

137 (a) [7:08]      Whatever we’ve woven or not woven, we have to start work [in the fields].

already adv this sg n adj what sg n rel
[...]
weave pl L.part P neg weave pl L.part P begin 1pl pres I
comp
work 1pl pres I

138 (a) [7:12]      First of all we plant onions, and after onions, then beans.

most early adv sow 1pl pres P onion sg m def after onion sg m def beans sg m def

139 (a) [7:16]      and after the beans, then melons, and after the melons, then “tsarevitsa” (corn).

after beans sg m def melon.field sg m def after melon.field sg m def corn sg f def

140 (VZh)       “rapka”

corn sg f def

141 (a) [7:21]      Yes, “rapka”, and then, we begin already to tamp the soil. First,

yes corn sg f def
and
after this sg n adj begin 1pl pres I already adv
comp
tamp 1pl pres I most first adv

142 (a) [7:26]      we tamp it around the onions. Then we hoe the beans, we hoe the corn –

onion sg m def
comp
acc refl clt
tamp 3sg pres P beans sg m def
comp
acc refl clt
hoe 3sg pres P corn sg f def
comp
acc refl clt
hoe 3sg pres P

143 (a) [7:31]      and – and we hoe the cotton. We also planted cotton.

and
and
cotton sg m def
comp
acc refl clt
hoe 3sg pres P
and
cotton sg m sow 1pl impf I

144 (VZh)       Ah, you planted cotton too?

disc
and
cotton sg m
2pl pres aux clt
sow pl L.part I

145 (a) [7:35]      Yes, we also planted cotton, and after that it’s time to hoe the corn.

yes
and
cotton sg m sow 1pl impf I
and
after this sg n adj corn sg f def already adv
comp
hoe 1pl pres I

146 (a) [7:46]      and all these things come in order: first one, then the next, first one, then the next.

and
nom 3pl
acc refl clt
work pl f def arrange 3pl pres I one sg f adj after other sg f adj one sg f adj after other sg f adj

147 (a) [7:46]      You go to the field in the morning, come back in the evening, get up in the morning

morning sg f go 2sg pres I
to
field sg m def evening sg f
acc refl clt
return 2sg pres I morning sg f arise 2sg pres I

148 (a) [7:49]      go again to the field, come back in the evening – all without a break.

again adv go 2sg pres I
to
field sg m def evening sg f
acc refl clt
return 2sg pres I continuously adv mean 3sg pres I

149 (a) [7:52]      No day goes by [but you work]. Only on Sunday would we stop a bit

day sg m
neg
acc refl clt pass 3sg pres I only adv
on
Sunday sg m adj day sg m remain 1pl impf I
by
little adv

150 (a) [7:56]      to take a rest. And all that was tremendous work. Tremendous.

comp
rest 1pl pres P
and
this sg n adj 3sg impf cop everything sg n adj big sg m adj labor sg m 3sg impf cop big sg m adj

151 (VZh)       Did you sell the cotton, or did you [grow it] for yourselves?

cotton sg m def sell pl L.part I
interr clt
2pl pres aux clt
acc m 3sg clt
or
for
acc 2pl

152 (a) [8:03]      At first we planted just enough cotton for us at home,

cotton sg m def
from
beginning sg n def sow 1pl impf I how.much rel
for
at.home adv

153 (VZh)       Uh huh.

bkch

154 (a) [8:08]      After that they ordered us to plant a lot of cotton.

after this sg n adj
acc 1pl clt
oblige 3pl aor P
comp
sow 1pl pres I
by
much adv cotton sg m

155 (a) [8:15]      That’s very much work. You need to tamp it down with an adze,

and dat m 3sg
3sg pres cop clt
work sg f def much adv nom m 3sg want 3sg pres I tamp vbl.n I
with
adze sg f def

156 (a) [8:17]      and [working] with an adze is not easy. And we even had a field here nearby,

with
adze sg f def
neg
go.smoothly 3sg pres I
and
even adv have 1pl impf I one sg f adj field sg f here adv
in
locality sg f def

157 (a) [8:23]      it was called Hrukli. There, they ordered us to plant 12 decares in cotton.

Hrukli sg m place
acc refl clt
say 3sg impf I twelve decare ct m oblige 3pl aor P
acc 1pl clt
comp
acc f 3sg clt
sow 1pl pres I cotton sg m

158 (a) [8:28]      Fine, but we didn’t have the work force, we had to hire day-workers

well adv but nom 1pl not.have 1pl pres I work sg f adj hand sg f must pres imprs
comp
catch 1pl pres I day.worker pl m

159 (a) [8:32]      to work the cotton fields, and then my father-in-law gave [out the word]:

comp
comp
work 1pl pres P this sg m adj cotton sg m then adv father.in.law sg m def give 3sg aor P

160 (a) [8:37]      Whoever had hands to work but no fields should come plant [the fields], and –

who sg m rel have 3sg pres I work sg f adj hand sg f but not.have 3pl pres I field pl f
comp
acc m 3sg
sow 3pl pres P
and

161 (a) [8:41]      and use them. So then they’d gather up the cotton for the farmer’s union,

and
comp
acc m 3sg clt
use 3pl pres I
and
and
then adv
hes
gather 3pl impf I cotton sg m def in
cooperative.farm sg f def

162 (a) [8:52]      and we’d take it [there]. When we gather it up to dry it, and to take it

carry 1pl impf I cotton sg m def
when inter.rel
acc m 3sg clt
gather 1pl pres I
comp
acc m 3sg clt
dry 1pl pres P
and
comp
acc m 3sg clt
bring 1pl pres P

163 (a) [8:52]      to the union, they’d give us money. They’d pay us for it,

in
cooperative.farm sg f def
and
dat 1pl clt
give 3pl impf I
on
money pl.t pay 3pl impf I
acc m 3sg clt
disc

164 (a) [8:57]      and would even give us yarn or cloth for it, whatever you asked for.

and
even adv
and
give 3pl impf I yarn sg f fabric pl m give 3pl impf I in.exchange which sg m interr what sg n rel want 3sg impf I

165 (a) [9:01]      Yarn if you want, cloth if you want, or just if you want them to pay you money.

if conj want 2sg pres I yarn sg f if conj want 2sg pres I fabric pl m if conj want 2sg pres I money pl.t
comp
dat 2sg clt
give 3pl pres P

166 (VZh)       Hm.

bkch

167 (a) [9:07]      That’s how it was. That was before we joining the cooperative farm.

thus adv 3sg impf cop this sg n adj before
comp
enter 3sg pres P
in
collective.farm sg n

168 (a) [9:13]      But then the cooperative farm came and took the fields [laughter]

and
after this sg n adj but cooperative.farm sg n def come 3sg aor P take 3pl aor P field pl f def

169 (a) [9:18]      And whoever wanted to go to work there, to do [it that way] – they did.

and
who sg m rel want 3sg pres I
comp
go 3sg pres P
comp
work 3sg pres I what sg m rel want 3sg pres I
comp
do 3sg pres I thus adv

170 (VZh)       So you did spinning and weaving until spring, and after spring,

disc
to
spring sg f def weave vbl.n I spin vbl.n I
and
after adv
from
spring sg f def when conj

171 (VZh)       after the wheat sprouted, what did you do with it?

when conj
acc refl clt
[...]
appear 3sg pres P already adv this sg n adj wheat sg n def what sg n interr
acc n 3sg clt
do 2pl aor I

172 (a) [9:32]      Well, the wheat – the wheat grows

disc wheat sg n def
dat refl clt
hes
wheat sg n def nom n 3sg
dat refl clt
grow 3sg pres I

173 (a) [9:35]      it grows the whole summer. Lately they’ve begun to irrigate it,

during entire sg n def adj summer sg n
dat refl clt
grow 3sg pres I
and
lately adv begin 3pl aor P
comp
acc n 3sg clt
water 3pl pres I

174 (a) [9:40]      but when we had our own [fields] there was no irrigation.

but
on
private sg n adj
when inter.rel
1pl impf cop impf neg exist water vbl.n I

175 (a) [9:43]      [Now] they fertilize it and water it, and when it’s time to gather it,

fertilize 3pl pres I
acc n 3sg clt
water 3pl pres I
acc n 3sg clt
and
when rel come 3sg pres P
for
gather vbl.n I

176 (a) [9:46]      when it’s ripened nicely, we gather it up and that’s done.

when rel ripen 3sg pres P well adv
and
acc n 3sg clt
gather 1pl pres I
and
thus adv

177 (a) [9:49]      There’s no problem with wheat, you just sow it.

for
wheat sg n def neg exist problem sg m wheat sg n def only adv
acc refl clt
sow 3sg pres I

178 (a) [9:53]      You don’t need to hoe it, or dig it, or anything.

nom n 3sg neither
acc refl clt
hoe 3sg pres I neither
acc refl clt
dig 3sg pres I neither nothing sg n

179 (VZh)       Uh huh.

bkch

180 (a) [9:57]      Corn, you have to dig, you have to start the plowing –

hes
corn sg f def
acc refl clt
dig 3sg pres I plow 3sg pres I
acc refl clt

181 (a) [10:00]      You’ve got to go out to work the corn at least three times,

most little adv three time pl m must pres imprs
comp
acc refl clt
go 3sg pres P by corn sg f def

182 (a) [10:04]      it needs a lot more work. And in the end you bring it in.

nom f 3sg have 3sg pres I more adv work sg f
and
at
end sg m def
acc refl clt
gather 3sg pres I

183 (VZh)       And when it’s time for harvest, when [that time] comes, what do you do?

and
when conj come 3sg pres P disc
to
harvest sg f when conj come 3sg pres P what sg n interr
acc refl clt
work 3sg pres I

184 (a) [10:12]      When harvest comes, we reap with sickles, we reap along with the day-workers

harvest sg f
when inter.rel
come 3sg pres P reap 1pl pres I with